Obviously if the reaction is exothermic an increase in

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Unformatted text preview: cases, we can write: µA (T) = µA (P , T) + RT ln(aA) where aA is called the activity of substance A. ∅ ∅ For an ideal gas, A: aA = PA / P ∅ For a real gas, A: aA = fA / P ∅ For a pure solid A: aA = 1 (since ln(1) = 0, it leads to µA (P, T) = µA (P , T) ) ∅ ∅ For a pure liquid A: aA = 1 (since ln(1) = 0, it leads to µA (P, T) = µA (P , T) ) ∅ ∅ For a solute or a solvent in a solution, we can in general write aA = γA xA where is γA the activity coefficient and xA is the mole fraction of that component in solution. We can now rewrite the expression for the reaction free energy as: 192 ([ ) [ ∅ Δ RG = µ ∅ + RT ln(aC ) + 3 µ D + RT ln(aD ) − C ([µ ∅ A ) [ ∅ + RT ln(a A ) + 2 µ B + RT ln(aB ) ( ∅ ∅ Δ RG = µ ∅ + 3µ D − µ ∅ − 2µ B C A ) 1 3( % (aC ) (aD ) * + RT...
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