Once the reactive mixture free energy reaches a

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Unformatted text preview: ce in a homogeneous mixture is lower than that of the pure substance (µA < µA0 and (µB < µB0). So, we are actually expecting that the difference between xA µA + xB µB and xA µA0 + xB µB0 is simply the free energy of mixing xA moles of A with xB moles of B. We now can understand why reactions can never rigorously go to completion (i.e. why A does not transform completely to B), hence, why 188 there is an equilibrium composition for the mixture. Following the evolution of the reactive mixture free energy with composition (red curve above), we conclude that as long as G decreases (ΔG < 0), the reaction proceeds spontaneously. Once the reactive mixture free energy reaches a minimum, then, we say that the reaction has reached its equilibrium extent of reaction (ΔG = 0). In the above example, the reaction reaches its equilibrium for xB ~ 0.8. We will now consider the general case of a chemical reaction, describe...
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