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We now define the extent of reaction by the quantity

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Unformatted text preview: d by the reaction equation: A + 2 B à༎ C + 3 D Since a chemical reaction can be run under conditions of constant temperature and pressure, a reaction is said to have reached equilibrium when ΔRG = 0. ΔRG = G(products) - G(reactants) = [µC + 3 µD] - [µA + 2 µB] At a given stage of the reaction, the free energy of the reactive system is given by: G = nA µA + nB µB + nC µC + nD µD where nA, nB, nC and nD are the number of moles of A, B, C and D present at that time in the reactive mixture. 189 Let us assume that, as the reaction progresses, the number of moles of A changes by dnA. Similarly, dnB, dnC, and dnD represent the changes in the numbers of moles of B, C and D. The change in the Gibbs free energy of the reactive mixture for such a change in the numbers of moles of A, B, C and D is then given by: d...
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