2 o g s s o f o f o v shaped 1095 sp3 tetrahedral

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Unformatted text preview: , sp3 hybrids f. 2- O g. S S O F O F O V-shaped, < 109.5°, sp3 tetrahedral, 109.5°, sp3 i. h. ! 90 o F S o ! 120 F F F see-saw, ≈90° and ≈120°, dsp3 F F F S F F F octahedral, 90°, d2sp3 CHAPTER 14 COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS j. F S F 579 k. a b c F F S 120 F F a) ≈109.5° b) ≈90° c) ≈120° see-saw about S atom with one lone pair (dsp3); bent about S atom with two lone pairs (sp3) 24. S + 90 o F F trigonal bipyramid, 90° and 120°, dsp3 No, the CH2 planes are mutually perpendicular to each other. The center C atom is sp hybridized and is involved in two π bonds. The p orbitals used to form each π bond must be perpendicular to each other. This forces the two CH2 p lanes to be perpendicular. H H C C C H H 26. o F Acrylonitrile: C3 H3N has 3(4) + 3(1) + 5 = 20 valence electrons. a) 120° b) 120° c) 180° b H C a H H C c 6 σ and 3 π bonds C sp2 sp N All atoms of acrylonitrile must lie in the same plane. The π bond in the double bond dictates that the C and H atoms are all in the same plane and the triple bond dictates that N is in the same plane with the other atoms. CHAPTER 14 COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS 580 Methyl methacrylate (C5H8 O2) has 5(4) + 8(1) + 2(6) = 40 valence electrons. d) 120° e) 120° f) ≈109.5° H H *H H C *+* Cd sp3 + C * +O * C *H sp2 e O+ f 14 σ and 2 π bonds H C H H The atoms marked with an asterisk must be coplanar with each other, as well as the atoms marked with a plus. The two planes, however, do not have to coincide with each other due to the rotations about sigma (single) bonds. 28. a. Piperine and capsaicin are molecules classified as organic compounds, i.e., compounds based on carbon. The majority of Lewis structures for organic compounds have all atoms with zero formal charge. Therefore, carbon atoms in organic compounds will usually form four bonds, nitrogen atoms will form three bonds and complete the octet with one lone pair of electrons, and oxygen atoms will form two bonds and complete the octet with two lone pairs of electrons. Usin...
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2014 for the course CHEM 001 taught by Professor Giancoli during the Fall '12 term at UPenn.

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