68 a yes both have four sets of electrons about the p

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Unformatted text preview: )2(π2p)4(σ2p)2, B.O. = 3, diamagnetic (0 unpaired e−) N2 (1st excited state): (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)4(σ2p)1(π2p*)1 B.O. = (7 − 3)/2 = 2, paramagnetic (2 unpaired e-) The first excited state of N2 should have a weaker bond and should be paramagnetic. 68. a. Yes, both have four sets of electrons about the P. We would predict a tetrahedral structure for both. See part d for the Lewis structures. b. The hybridization is sp3 for P in each structure since both structures exhibit a tetrahedral arrangement of electron pairs. c. P has to use one of its d orbitals to form the π bond since the p orbitals are all used to form the hybrid orbitals. d. Formal charge = number of valence electrons of an atom – [(number of lone pair electrons) + 1/2 (number of shared electrons)]. The formal charges calculated for the O and P atoms are next to the atoms in the following Lewis structures. O -1 Cl +1 P Cl Cl 0 O Cl P 0 Cl Cl In both structures, the formal charges of the Cl atoms are all zeros. The structure with the P=O bond is favored on the basis of formal charge since it has a zero formal charge for all atoms. CHAP. 14 592 70. COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS - EVEN-NUMBER PROBLEMS For carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms to have formal charge values of zero, each C atom will form four bonds to other atoms and have no lone pairs of electrons, each N atom will form three bonds to other atoms and have one lone pair of electrons, and each O atom will form two bonds to other atoms and have two lone pairs of electrons. Following these bonding requirements gives the following two resonance structures for vitamin B6: O b a H O H g HC H C C f O C HH c C d e C O N C C C H O H H H H C C C HH C H C H C C N O H H H a. 21 σ bonds; 4 π bonds (The electrons in the three π bonds in the ring are delocalized.) b. Angles a), c), and g): ≈109.5°; angles b), d), e), and f): ≈120° c. 6 sp2 carbons; the five carbon atoms in the ring are sp 2 hybridized, as is the carbon with the double bond to oxygen. d. 4 sp3 a...
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2014 for the course CHEM 001 taught by Professor Giancoli during the Fall '12 term at UPenn.

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