Again following the organic rules in exercise 1470

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Unformatted text preview: peak and a triplet peak in the spectrum. The quartet peak indicates hydrogen atom(s) that neighbor three H atoms; the triplet peak indicates hydrogen atom(s) that neighbor two H atoms. Again, following the “organic rules” in Exercise 14.70, the only possibility to explain this NMR pattern is: CH3CH2–O– CH2CH3 This compound has two different “types” of hydrogen atoms (–CH3 and – CH2). The –CH3 hydrogen atoms neighbor the –CH2 g roup, which would produce the triplet peak, and the – CH2 hydrogen atoms neighbor the –CH3 group, that would produce the quartet peak. From inspection, the relative areas of the two different patterns seems to confirm a 6:4 (or 3:2) ratio as it should be. Additional Exercises CHAP. 14 590 COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS - EVEN-NUMBER PROBLEMS FClO2 + F− → F2ClO2− F3ClO + F− → F4ClO− F2ClO2−, 2(7) + 7 + 2(6) + 1 = 34 e− 62. F4ClO−, 4(7) + 7 + 6 + 1 = 42 e− - F O F Cl O O F Cl F F dsp3 hybridization F d2sp3 hybridization Note: Similar to Exercise 14.61c, d, and e, F2 ClO2- has two additional Lewis structures that are possible, and F4ClO- has one additional Lewis structure that is possible, depending on the relative placement of the O and F atoms. The predicted hybridization is unaffected. F3ClO → F− + F2ClO+ F3ClO2 → F− + F2ClO2+ F2ClO+, 2(7 ) + 7 + 6 − 1 = 26 e− F2ClO2+, 2(7) + 7 + 2(6) − 1 = 32 e− + Cl F F + O Cl O F sp3 hybridization F O sp3 hybridization 64. Cl H C H H Cl C C Cl H Cl C Cl C Cl H C H In order to rotate about the double bond, the molecule must go through an intermediate stage where the π bond is broken and the sigma bond remains intact. Bond energies are 347 kJ/mol for a C‒C bond and 614 kJ/mol for a C=C bond. If we take the single bond as the strength of the σ bond, then the strength of the π bond is (614 − 347 = ) 267 kJ/mol. Thus 267 kJ/mol must be supplied to rotate about a carbon-carbon double bond. CHAP. 14 591 66. COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS - EVEN-NUMBER PROBLEMS N2 (ground state): (σ2s)2(σ2s*...
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2014 for the course CHEM 001 taught by Professor Giancoli during the Fall '12 term at UPenn.

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