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Unformatted text preview: ic orbitals. Carbon and oxygen each has one unhybridized p atomic orbital that is
parallel with the other. When two parallel p atomic orbitals overlap, a π bond results where
the shared electron pair occupies the space above and below a line joining the atoms in the
C2H2 h as 2(4) + 2(1) = 10 valence electrons. H C C H Each carbon atom in C2H2 is sp hybridized since each carbon atom is surrounded by two
effective pairs of electrons; i.e., each carbon atom has a linear arrangement of the electrons.
Since each carbon atom is sp hybridized, then each carbon atom has two unhybridized p
atomic orbitals. The two C−H sigma bonds are formed from overlap of carbon sp hybrid
orbitals with hydrogen 1s atomic orbitals. The triple bond is composed of one σ bond and
two π bonds. The sigma bond between to the carbon atoms is formed from overlap of sp
hybrid orbitals from each carbon atom. The two π bonds of the triple bond are formed from
parallel overlap of the two unhybridized p atomic orbitals from each carbon.
16. HCN, 1 + 4 + 5 = 10 valence electrons
H C N Assuming N is hybridized, both C and N atoms are sp hybridized. The C‒H σ bond is formed
from overlap of a carbon sp hybrid orbital with a hydrogen 1s atomic orbital. The triple bond
is composed of one σ bond and two π bonds. The sigma bond is formed from head-to-head
overlap of the sp hybrid orbitals from the C and N atoms. The two π bonds in the triple bond
are formed from overlap of the two unhybridized p atomic orbitals on each C and N atom.
COCl2, 4 + 6 + 2(7) = 24 valence electrons
Cl Cl Assuming all atoms are hybridized, the carbon and oxygen atoms are sp2 hybridized, and the
two chlorine atoms are sp3 hybridized. The two C‒Cl σ bonds are formed from overlap of sp2
hybrids from C with sp3 hybrid orbitals from Cl. The double bond between the carbon and
oxygen atoms consists of one σ and one π bond. The σ bond in the double bond is formed
from head-to-head overlap of an sp2 orbital from carbon with...
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