SolnsChap14EVENZum7e

SolnsChap14EVENZum7e - CHAPTER 14 COVALENT BONDING ORBITALS...

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575 CHAPTER 14 COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS The Localized Electron Model and Hybrid Orbitals 10. Geometry Hybridization Unhybridized p atomic orbitals linear sp 2 trigonal planar sp 2 1 tetrahedral sp 3 0 The unhybridized p atomic orbitals are used to form π bonds. Two unhybridized p atomic orbitals each from a different atom overlap side to side, resulting in a shared electron pair occupying the space above and below the line joining the atoms (the internuclear axis). 12. Rotation occurs in a bond as long as the orbitals that go to form that bond still overlap when the atoms are rotating. Sigma bonds, with the head-to-head overlap, remain unaffected by rotating the atoms in the bonds. Atoms that are bonded together by only a sigma bond (single bond) exhibit this rotation phenomenon. The π bonds, however, cannot be rotated. The p orbitals must be parallel to each other to form the π bond. If we try to rotate the atoms in a π bond, the p orbitals would no longer have the correct alignment necessary to overlap. Because π bonds are present in double and triple bonds (a double bond is composed of 1 σ and 1 π bond, and a triple bond is always 1 σ and 2 π bonds), the atoms in a double or triple bond cannot rotate (unless the bond is broken). 14. H 2 CO has 2(1) + 4 + 6 = 12 valence electrons. The central carbon atom has a trigonal planar arrangement of the electron pairs that requires sp 2 hybridization. The two C H sigma bonds are formed from overlap of the sp 2 hybrid orbitals from carbon with the hydrogen 1s atomic orbitals. The double bond between carbon and oxygen consists of one σ and one π bond. The oxygen atom, like the carbon atom, also has a trigonal planar arrangement of the electrons that requires sp 2 hybridization. The σ bond in the double bond is formed from overlap of a carbon sp 2 hybrid orbital with an oxygen sp 2 C H H O
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CHAPTER 14 COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS 576 hybrid orbital. The π bond in the double bond is formed from overlap of the unhybridized p atomic orbitals. Carbon and oxygen each has one unhybridized p atomic orbital that is parallel with the other. When two parallel p atomic orbitals overlap, a π bond results where the shared electron pair occupies the space above and below a line joining the atoms in the bond. C 2 H 2 has 2(4) + 2(1) = 10 valence electrons. Each carbon atom in C 2 H 2 is sp hybridized since each carbon atom is surrounded by two effective pairs of electrons; i.e., each carbon atom has a linear arrangement of the electrons. Since each carbon atom is sp hybridized, then each carbon atom has two unhybridized p atomic orbitals. The two C H sigma bonds are formed from overlap of carbon sp hybrid orbitals with hydrogen 1s atomic orbitals. The triple bond is composed of one σ bond and two π bonds. The sigma bond between to the carbon atoms is formed from overlap of sp hybrid orbitals from each carbon atom. The two π bonds of the triple bond are formed from parallel overlap of the two unhybridized p atomic orbitals from each carbon.
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SolnsChap14EVENZum7e - CHAPTER 14 COVALENT BONDING ORBITALS...

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