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Unformatted text preview: an sp2 hybrid orbital from
oxygen. The π bond is formed from parallel overlap of the unhybridized p atomic orbitals on
each atom of C and O. CHAPTER 14
18. COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS 577 For the molecules in Exercise 13.91, all have central atoms with dsp3 hybridization because
all are based on the trigonal bipyramid arrangement of electron pairs. See Exercise 13.91 for
the Lewis structures.
For the molecules in Exercise 13.92 all have central atoms with d2sp3 hybridization because
all are based on the octahedral arrangement of electron pairs. See Exercise 13.92 for the
Lewis structures. 20. a. The V-shaped (or bent) molecular structure occurs with both a trigonal planar and a tetrahedral arrangement of electron pairs. If there is a trigonal planar arrangement, the central
atom is sp2 hybridized. If there is a tetrahedral arrangement, the central atom is sp3
b. The see-saw structure is a trigonal bipyramid arrangement of electron pairs which
requires dsp3 hybridization.
c. The trigonal pyramid structure o ccurs when a central atom has three bonded atoms and a
lone pair of electrons. Whenever a central atom has four effective pairs about the central
atom (exhibits a tetrahedral arrangement of electron pairs), the central atom is sp3
d. A trigonal bipyramidal arrangement of electron pairs requires dsp3 hybridization.
e. A tetrahedral arrangement of electron pairs requires sp3 hybridization. 22. a. V-shaped, sp2, ≈120° S
O O Only one resonance form is shown. Resonance does not change the position of the
atoms. We can predict the geometry and hybridization from any one of the resonance
structures. CHAPTER 14 COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS 578 22. (continued)
b. c. O 2- O S
O S O S O
O trigonal planar, 120°, sp2
(plus two other resonance structures)
d. tetrahedral, 109.5°, sp3 2- O
O e. O S O O O S 2- S
O O O O O trigonal pyramid, < 109.5°, sp3 tetrahedral geometry about each S, 109.5°,
sp3 hybrids; V-shaped arrangement about
peroxide O’s, ≈109.5°...
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