SolnsChap14EVENZum7e

The bond is formed from parallel overlap of the

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Unformatted text preview: an sp2 hybrid orbital from oxygen. The π bond is formed from parallel overlap of the unhybridized p atomic orbitals on each atom of C and O. CHAPTER 14 18. COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS 577 For the molecules in Exercise 13.91, all have central atoms with dsp3 hybridization because all are based on the trigonal bipyramid arrangement of electron pairs. See Exercise 13.91 for the Lewis structures. For the molecules in Exercise 13.92 all have central atoms with d2sp3 hybridization because all are based on the octahedral arrangement of electron pairs. See Exercise 13.92 for the Lewis structures. 20. a. The V-shaped (or bent) molecular structure occurs with both a trigonal planar and a tetrahedral arrangement of electron pairs. If there is a trigonal planar arrangement, the central atom is sp2 hybridized. If there is a tetrahedral arrangement, the central atom is sp3 hybridized. b. The see-saw structure is a trigonal bipyramid arrangement of electron pairs which requires dsp3 hybridization. c. The trigonal pyramid structure o ccurs when a central atom has three bonded atoms and a lone pair of electrons. Whenever a central atom has four effective pairs about the central atom (exhibits a tetrahedral arrangement of electron pairs), the central atom is sp3 hybridized. d. A trigonal bipyramidal arrangement of electron pairs requires dsp3 hybridization. e. A tetrahedral arrangement of electron pairs requires sp3 hybridization. 22. a. V-shaped, sp2, ≈120° S O O Only one resonance form is shown. Resonance does not change the position of the atoms. We can predict the geometry and hybridization from any one of the resonance structures. CHAPTER 14 COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS 578 22. (continued) b. c. O 2- O S O S O S O O trigonal planar, 120°, sp2 (plus two other resonance structures) d. tetrahedral, 109.5°, sp3 2- O O e. O S O O O S 2- S O O O O O trigonal pyramid, < 109.5°, sp3 tetrahedral geometry about each S, 109.5°, sp3 hybrids; V-shaped arrangement about peroxide O’s, ≈109.5°...
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