Unformatted text preview: g these guidelines, the Lewis structures are:
O CH CH O H CH
c b H C N O g H HH H O H O f H e
H piperine H H 3C H d O
C H HH H H
H CH 2 C
H H i CH 2
(C H 2)3 j CH
CH k CH 3
CH 3 capsaicin H REFER TO DIAGRAM IN TEXT - IT IS MISSING IN THE PROVIDED SOLUTIONS Note: The ring structures are all shorthand notation for rings of carbon atoms. In
piperine the first ring contains six carbon atoms and the second ring contains five carbon
atoms (plus nitrogen). Also notice that CH3, CH2, and CH are shorthand for carbon
atoms singly bonded to hydrogen atoms. CHAPTER 14 COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS 581 b. piperine: 0 sp, 11 sp2 and 6 sp3 carbons; capsaicin: 0 sp, 9 sp2, and 9 sp3 carbons
c. The nitrogens are sp3 hybridized in each molecule.
d. a) 120°
k) 120° 30. b) 120°
l) 109.5° c) 120° a. To complete the Lewis structure, add two lone pairs to each sulfur atom.
C H C C C C
C sp sp
CH 2 S b. See the Lewis structure. The four carbon atoms in the ring are all sp2 hybridized, and the
two sulfur atoms are sp3 hybridized.
c. 23 σ and 9 π bonds. Note: CH3 (H3C), CH2, and CH are shorthand for carbon atoms
singly bonded to hydrogen atoms. The Molecular Orbital (MO) Model
32. a. The bonding molecular orbital is on the right and the antibonding molecular orbital is on
the left. The bonding MO has the greatest electron probability between the nuclei, while
the antibonding MO has greatest electron probability outside of the space between the
b. The bonding MO is lower in energy. Because the electrons in the bonding MO have the
greatest probability of lying between the two nuclei, these electrons are attracted to two
different nuclei, resulting in a lower energy. CHAPTER 14
34. COVALENT BONDING: ORBITALS 582 Bond energy is directly proportional to bond order. Bond length is inversely proportional to
bond order. Bond energy and bond length can be measured; b...
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