05_Memory_Whole_Edit

absentmindedness everyday failure in remembering

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Unformatted text preview: onditions ▪  Study on land, recall underwater ▪  Study underwater, recall on land 20 Godden & Baddeley’s (1975) results:   Recall was better when there was a match between the contexts of learning and testing Mean Number of Words Recalled   Test Study Environment   Match between individual’s state at encoding and retrieval - - better memory performance   Goodwin et al. (1969) study on memory and alcohol   Students learned a word list   Some received 10 oz of 80-   NOTE – DV is Errors in Recall   Goodwin et al’s (1969) results:   Learning context provides cues for remembering the information Mean number of ERRORS of recall proof vodka at study, at test, or at both, and some remained sober throughout Encoding Retrieval 21   Mood congruence effects as well   State/Context provide recall cue   Function: most relevant memories to current state are most accessible Mnemonic Devices   Categorical clustering: organize list of items into categories   Imagery: visualize items as learn them   Method of loci: associate items with landmarks   Acronyms: words formed from the initial letters of new items to be learned   Acrostics: sentences formed form the initial letters of new items to be learned   Provide an organization for learning   Guide retrieval by providing effective cues for retrieving the information 22   Memory of which we are consciously aware   Episodic memory   Personally experienced events or episodes ▪  Sixth birthday party ▪  Visit to the Washington Memorial   Semantic memory   General knowledge base ▪  George Washing...
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