Speech sounds involving lip or tongue movement

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Unformatted text preview: and auditory info used •  Categorical perception •  Do not perceive slight variations in how phonemes pronounced…within limits •  Liberman, et al (1957) ‘b’ and ‘p’ differ in voicing onset time (VOT) with sharp boundary between them Motor Theory of Speech Perception   Perception shares processes with or relies on knowledge of production   Coarticulation   Indication of tongue movements when phoneme being perceived (Fadiga, et al 2002)   Interrupting motor cortex with TMS impairs identification of speech sounds involving lip or tongue movement (Moettoenen & Watkins, 2009)   Problem: categorical perception for nonspeech sounds and in non- human animals (e.g. chinchillas) 4 2/21/13   Smallest unit of meaning   Words, parts of words, prefixes, suffixes, etc.   Hippopotamus   - s   Closed class (function)   Open class (content)   English - about 600,000 words   Segmentation of speech stream into words   Average adult English speaker – lexicon of 80,000 morphemes   Context is crucial for perception   Just like with phonemes   Not simply accurately hearing speech sounds produced and mapping onto particular morpheme   E.g. perception of isolated words (Miller & Isard, 1963) ▪  68% for slow speech ▪  41% for fast speech   Set of rules that describes legal sentences that can be constructed in a language   Chomsky’s Distinctions (1957, 1965)   Competence: knowledge of the rules   Performance: how grammatical the actual produced sentences are ▪  Influenced by competence, memory, social considerations 5 2/21/13   Word order is heart of syntax   Word order crucial in determining meaning   Grammatical sentences can be ambiguous   “Time flies like an arrow”   5 possible meanings   Time moves quickly, as an arrow does   Assess the pace of flies as you...
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