Traumatic Brain Injuries Summary Sheet Types of Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI): 1. Penetrating (open ) • Skull is penetrated or fractured (e.g., bullet or sharp object) 2. Crushing • Head is caught between two objects (e.g., under a car) 3. Closed • Most common type of head injury • Blunt force to head accelerates/decelerates the brain within the skull. Head Injuries Cause : • Focal and diffuse damage o Bruising (contusion), swelling (edema) or tearing of brain tissue o stretching or tearing of nerve fibers (diffuse axonal injury) o Damage to blood vessels (subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage) • First Injury – damage that occurs in the first few seconds; the initial impact of the brain against skull • Second Injury – damage that occurs when blood or oxygen supply to brain is disrupted (e.g., breathing impaired, excessive blood loss) • Third Injury – damage that occurs from blood clots (thrombus/hematoma) or swelling (edema) which raises intracranial pressure (squashing cells) and causes
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