1_Divine_Right_and_Rise_of_Absolutism_fillable.pdf - Divine Right the Rise of Absolutism SLMS\/11 What is Absolutism What led to Absolutism \u2022Absolutism

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Unformatted text preview: Divine Right & the Rise of Absolutism SLMS/11 What is Absolutism? What led to Absolutism? •Absolutism , or Absolute Monarchy, is a situation where Kings rule with total authority. European monarchs claimed to rule by ‘Divine Right’, which suggested that God had placed them on the throne, and as such, they were responsible only to God — not to nobles, or to a Church, or to a Parliament. To question their authority was to question God himself. Certainly, there was no separation of Church and State! •The era of absolutism in Europe is generally considered to have peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries. (Although several Absolute Monarchies continued through the 18th and 19th centuries.) •The Protestant Reformation had quite a bit to do with the rise of Absolute Monarchs. Following the Reformation was a period of religious warfare that plagued much of Europe. Many people looked for order out of the chaos, and national monarchs arose to create that order. •Also, the Reformation weakened the two most powerful political structures in Europe: the Papacy (ie. The Church) and the Holy Roman Empire. As these two institutions weakened, regional national monarchs took advantage and strengthened their positions. •Additionally, many national monarchs seized control of the Church and all its lands (whether Catholic or Protestant) in their kingdom. Some monarchs made themselves head of the Church in their nation. This began the solidification of monarchical power. Divine Right vs. Mandate of Heaven •People often like to draw a comparison to 16th & 17th century European absolutism and traditional Chinese dynastic rule. •Both claim the source of their authority or power was supernatural, or heavenly, but they differ on their interpretation of the scope of that power. •European monarchs tended to feel that their power was unlimited, and was not to be questioned. To question the monarch was to question God. The monarch was God’s representative on Earth, and thus, was responsible only to God. •The Chinese looked at the Mandate as a grant of power that might be quite temporary. The Chinese people looked for signs to tell them that the dynasty had lost heaven’s mandate. The rulers had responsibilities to the people they ruled — to keep them fed and safe. Europeans were not subject to the same restrictions. Star Power •Despite their power, most successful Absolute Monarchs were very hard working rulers who enjoyed long, peaceful reigns and were adored by their people. These monarchs were especially popular if they were able to create a stable and prosperous economy! Global History Divine Right & the Rise of Absolutism 1. Define: Absolutism -Absolute Monarchy. Name _____________________________________ 5. How is European absolutist rule similar to Chinese dynastic rule? Both claim the source of their authority or power was supernatural/ heavenly. Divine Right -God had placed them on the throne, and they were responsible only to God. 2. Why did people hesitate to question the actions of Divine Right Kings? Because to question their authority was to question God himself. 6. How did European monarchs interpret their divine power? European monarchs felt that their power was unlimited and couldn't be questioned. God was their power. 3. When was the era of absolutism in Europe? 16th and 17th centuries. 4. Explain how the Protestant Reformation contributed to the rise of Absolutism. a. 7. How did the Chinese interpret their divine power? The Chinese looked at the Mandate as a grant of power. National monarchs stood up to create that order from the chaos. b. The Reformation weakened the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, national monarchs took advantage and were able to strengthened their positions. 8. Describe a successful Absolute Monarch. Monarchs who were very hard working, who enjoyed long, peaceful reigns and were adored by their people. c. National monarchs seized control of the Church and its lands. Some monarchs made themselves head of the Church in their nation, this began the monarchical power. 9. What made Absolute Monarchs especially popular? if they were able to create a stable and prosperous economy. Being an Absolute Monarch The Goal of Absolute Monarchs •Absolute Monarchs sought to enhance the grandeur and status of their nation through military conquest, economic development, territorial expansion and construction projects. Economic Solidification •The economy held the (golden) key to total political power for many monarchs. If they could raise money without raising new taxes, they could rule without a Parliament. •Thus, monarchs became more involved in growing the economy. -First, they began to offer military protection to business ventures (especially those in colonies), because the more money businesses made, the more money would flow into the treasury. -Second, they offered incentives to entrepreneurs to start new businesses. This increased the tax base. Thus, without raising taxes, they effectively raised revenue. -Third, they often began building economic infrastructure within their nation to facilitate trade. This included construction of roads and canals. -Fourth, they streamlined tax collection so that less money was lost. •Increased revenues was an essential part of successful Absolutist rule. It financed military build-up which allowed for territorial conquest. It also financed building projects that reflected the power of the monarch. SLMS/11 Solidification of Political Control •Most monarchs, whether Catholic or Protestant, were aided by the Protestant Reformation and the weakening of the Catholic Church. This helped gain some political authority. •The most difficult political obstacle in most nations was the power of the nobility, and the existence of a Parliament. •Most monarchs had to get the approval of a Parliament before raising taxes (ie. raising money). Absolute monarchs refused to share their political power with a Parliament, so they had to find a way of raising money without raising taxes. •Absolute monarchs also refused to share their political power with the nobles in their nation. Different monarchs used different techniques to subdue their nobles. Military Build-up •Build-up of the military (especially the construction of a navy by the 1600s), became an essential part of achieving an Absolute Monarch’s goals of territorial acquisition and expansion of the economy. Building Projects •Not unlike the Ancient Romans, most Absolute Monarchs engaged in large scale building projects of Palaces, gardens, or other public works, designed to represent their power and grandeur. Global History Being an Absolute Monarch Name _____________________________________ 1. What was the goal of most Absolute Mon- 6. Explain four ways Absolute Monarchs archs? grew their economies. To strengthen the status of their nation through military conquest. Have good economic development, and construction projects. a. They began to offer military protection to business ventures, more money would flow into the treasury. 2. How were Absolute Monarchs aided by the Protestant Reformation? Most monarchs had to get the approval of a Parliament before raising taxes, they also didn't want to share political power with anyone. b. They offered incentives to entrepreneurs to start new businesses, this increased the tax base. c. 3. What were two political obstacles to absolute power? They began building economic infrastructure within their nation to facilitate trade. The power of the nobility, and the existence of a Parliament. d. They streamlined tax collection so that less money was lost. 4. How did these two pose as obstacles? Because it made things more difficult and confusing because the monarchs didn't like interacting with anyone besides god. 7. Why were increased revenues essential for successful Absolutist rule? Because It financed military build-up and building projects . 8. Why did Absolute monarchs build up their militaries? 5. Why was the economy the golden key to absolute power? Because it created expansion for the economy. Because it was total political power for many monarchs. 9. Why did Absolute Monarchs engage in building projects? Because it represented their power and grandeur. ...
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