PLEASE DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PACKET Chapter Two—Classical Civilizations Section One—Geography & ChronologyClassics When something is referred to as ’a classic,’ it means that it has served as a model or basis for later things that came after it. For example, ’classic rock’ refers to some of the earliest rock ’n’ roll music, which later artists have enhanced to use as the basis for their own music. So a classical civilization is a civilization which later civilizations seek to emulate. Each geographical area of the world has its own classical eras. For Western civilization, or "the West"(Europe and America), the classical civilizations were those of the Greek city-states and Roman Republic and Empire. InEastern civilizations(mostly Asia), there were four classical civilizations. InIndian history, the classical periods were the Maurya & Gupta eras. And for China, the Qin and Han dynasties served as classical models. Geography It’s important to take a civilization’s geography into consideration when studying its history, as it can often have an effect on events. 18 2.1 Chapter Two—Classical Civilizations; Section 1—Geography & Chronology Lots of modern rock music has been influenced by earlyclassic rock bands. Roman Republic & Empire Greek City-states Maurya & Gupta India Qin & Han China Indian Ocean Mediterranean Sea Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS A civilization which seeks to emulate another will adopt many of the same ideas and cultural elements.
PLEASE DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PACKET Greece—Mountains and Archipelagos Consider the mountainous terrain and archipelagicformations of Greece. Geographic features made it difficult for Greek people to have extended contact with each other, so the fact that they did not all share a political system is understandable. Rome—Italian Peninsula and Mediterranean Sea The Roman Republic began on the Italian peninsula, which is not as mountainous, making it easier to unite. The Roman Empirecentered around the Mediterranean Sea. This gave the Romans a natural avenue for cultural diffusion.19 2.1 Classical Greek regions and city-states—notice all the mountains! Roman Republic and early Empire Chapter Two—Classical Civilizations; Section 1—Geography & Chronology An archipelagois a group or chain of islands.
PLEASE DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PACKET Chapter Two—Classical Civilizations; Section 1—Geography & Chronology 20 2.1 Greece Rome India China Greek City-states: 500 BCE-338 BCE Alexander’s Empire (Hellenistic): 338 BCE- 323 BCE Roman Republic: 509BCE -44 BCE Roman Empire: 44 BCE—476 CE Maurya Empire: 321-185 BCE Gupta Empire: 320 CE-550 CE Qin Dynasty: 221 BCE-206 BCE Han Dynasty: 206 BCE-220 CE Indian Sub-continent Physical geography also affected Indian history. India is often referred to as a sub-continent, because of the features that separate it from the rest of Asia. It is bordered by oceans on three sides, and then the Thar Desert and Himalayan mountains serve as a natural barrier in the north. This natural separation allowed India to develop a distinct culture.