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Crime prevention and control community based

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Unformatted text preview: heory Left Realism • Approach that sees crime as a function of relative Approach deprivation under capitalism and favors pragmatic, community-based crime prevention and control community-based • Represents a compromise between conflict and traditional Represents criminology criminology • Work of John Lea and Jock Young suggest the poor are Work doubly abused by capitalists and by members of their own class class • Ian Taylor contends the world is currently in the midst of Ian multiple crisis (job creation, social inequality, social fear, political incompetence and failure, gender conflict, and family & parenting issues) family Critical Feminist Theory • Approach that explains both victimization and Approach criminality among women in terms of gender inequality, patriarchy, and the exploitation of women under capitalism women • Explains gender bias, violence against women, Explains and repression and • Patriarchal (male dominated) systems devalue the Patriarchal work of women work • The exploitation of women produces far more The surplus value for capitalists than men surplus Power-Control Theory • The view that gender differences in crime are a The function of economic power and parental control function • Girls are controlled more closely than boys in Girls traditional patriarchal male-dominated households and there is gender equity in contemporary egalitarian homes egalitarian • Dissatisfied girls seek “role exit behaviors” Dissatisfied (running away/ suicide) (running • Empirical research has supported power control Empirical theory (Hagan and Sims-Blackwell) theory Peacemaking Criminology • Approach that considers punitive crime control Approach strategies to be counterproductive and favors the use of humanistic conflict resolution to prevent and control crime and • Offers a new approach to crime control through Offers mediation and conflict resolution mediation • Pulls from religious and philosophical literature Critical Theory and Public Policy • Seek to reduce conflict and competition in society • Reduce harsh punishment of offenders Restorative Justice • Using humanistic, non-punitive strategies to right Using wrongs and restore social harmony wrongs • Contends that society needs to hold offenders Contends accountable to make right the harms they have caused caused Principles of Restorative Justice • Crime is an offense against human relationships • Victims and the community are central to justice Victims processes processes • The first priority of justice processes is to assist The victims victims • The second priority is to restore the community • The offender has personal responsibility to the The victims and to the community victims • The offender will develop improved competency The and understanding and Restoration Programs • • • • • • negotiation negotiation mediation mediation consensus building peacemaking peacemaking sentencing circles sentencing panels Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ) • The justice system should give equal weight to The offender accountability, competency development, and community protection and Concerns about Restorative Justice • Is it a political movement or a treatment process? • Must be wary of cultural and social differences • What is considered “restorative” in one What subculture may be considered insulting or damaging in another damaging • No single definition • Must balance the needs of offenders with those of Must the victims the • Benefits may only be short-term...
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