To disk any me you want has exibility because you

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Unformatted text preview: saying “commit” Rule 2. output to disk can only happen aXer we have declared “commiIed” (not before as in undo logging) How to do recovery? If system crashed before “commit”, you don’t have to do anything for the incomplete transac-on because it wasn’t commiIed, so it wasn’t output If system crashed aXer “commit”, we’re not sure if it was output, so we must “redo” to make sure the transac-on occurred Nonquiesc...
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