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Unformatted text preview: reticulum.[19,20]
1.4 Supplement Strategies The typical Cr loading programme consists of 20
g/day (four doses of 5g each) for 5–7 days followed
by a maintenance load of 3–5 g/day, although lower
dosages (2–3 g/day) for a greater length of time (1
month) can be as equally effective in raising intracellular PCr levels. In general, the greatest increases
in cellular levels of PCr following supplementation
occur in those individuals that have the lowest initial
values and the greatest uptake of Cr into the 2005 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. 109 muscle occurs during the initial stages of the loading
regimen. Exercise seems to enhance the uptake of
Cr, especially if the Cr is ingested after the exercise
with a simple carbohydrate drink. The use of a
carbohydrate drink appears to be more important
during the initial phases of the Cr loading and less
important as intracellular Cr stores near saturation.
Most researchers also agree, that as with most intervention protocols, there are responders and nonresponders to Cr supplementation.
2. Ergogenic Effects
Although Cr supplementation has been used in a
number of clinical situations, such as congestive
heart failure,[22,23] atherosclerosis, neuro-degenerative diseases and neuromuscular diseases, often with mixed results, this review will focus only on
the proposed ergogenic effects relative to sport and
exercise performance. Medline and Sport Discus
were used as the primary databases for this topic of
Cr and sport performance. Articles from 1999 onwards were used in this review and the rationale for
this decision was based on the overwhelming volume of literature that dealt with Cr supplementation
during the 1990s, the recent scientific advances in
mechanisms related to the proposed actions of Cr,
the recent use of speed groups (elderly, diseased), and improved statistical analyses and interpretation (table I).
2.1 Peak Force
2.1.1 Isoinertial Strength and Rate of
Force Development A number of studies have examined the acute
effects of Cr loading (20 g/day for 5 days) as well as
the longer term effects of a maintenance regimen
(3–5 g/day for 4–16 weeks) coupled with...
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