Creatine Supplementation

1920 14 supplement strategies the typical cr loading

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Unformatted text preview: reticulum.[19,20] 1.4 Supplement Strategies The typical Cr loading programme consists of 20 g/day (four doses of 5g each) for 5–7 days followed by a maintenance load of 3–5 g/day, although lower dosages (2–3 g/day) for a greater length of time (1 month) can be as equally effective in raising intracellular PCr levels. In general, the greatest increases in cellular levels of PCr following supplementation occur in those individuals that have the lowest initial values[11] and the greatest uptake of Cr into the 2005 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. 109 muscle occurs during the initial stages of the loading regimen. Exercise seems to enhance the uptake of Cr, especially if the Cr is ingested after the exercise with a simple carbohydrate drink.[8] The use of a carbohydrate drink appears to be more important during the initial phases of the Cr loading and less important as intracellular Cr stores near saturation. Most researchers also agree, that as with most intervention protocols, there are responders and nonresponders to Cr supplementation.[21] 2. Ergogenic Effects Although Cr supplementation has been used in a number of clinical situations, such as congestive heart failure,[22,23] atherosclerosis, neuro-degenerative diseases[24] and neuromuscular diseases,[25] often with mixed results, this review will focus only on the proposed ergogenic effects relative to sport and exercise performance. Medline and Sport Discus were used as the primary databases for this topic of Cr and sport performance. Articles from 1999 onwards were used in this review and the rationale for this decision was based on the overwhelming volume of literature that dealt with Cr supplementation during the 1990s, the recent scientific advances in mechanisms related to the proposed actions of Cr, the recent use of speed groups (elderly, diseased), and improved statistical analyses and interpretation (table I). 2.1 Peak Force 2.1.1 Isoinertial Strength and Rate of Force Development A number of studies have examined the acute effects of Cr loading (20 g/day for 5 days) as well as the longer term effects of a maintenance regimen (3–5 g/day for 4–16 weeks) coupled with...
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