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Creatine Supplementation

Sixteen currently active triathletes performed four

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Unformatted text preview: n currently active triathletes performed four 20-second all-out sprints on an air-braked cycle ergometer with each trial separated by 20-second recovery periods. Muscle biopsies were obtained so that subjects could be matched for intramuscular Cr content before they were randomly assigned to receive either a Cr (n = 8; 20 g/day for 20 days) or a placebo group (n = 8). Results indicated that free Cr was significantly higher in the Cr group compared with no change in the placebo group; however, there were no significant differences between groups regarding test performance parameters. 3. Potential Adverse Effects It appears as though the consensus, regarding issues of possible adverse effects from Cr supplementation, is that there is no strong scientific evidence to support any reported adverse effects. Most of the reports have been rather minor in nature and purely anecdotal; however, it is critical to note that well controlled, long-term studies in humans are Sports Med 2005; 35 (2) 122 Bemben & Lamont lacking, therefore, caution should still be used if Cr is to be used on a long-term basis. 3.1 Gastrointestinal (Stomach Cramping, Nausea, Diarrhoea, Vomiting) Perhaps the most often reported adverse effect of Cr supplementation is gastrointestinal (GI) distress. It appears that, if the Cr is insufficiently dissolved[9,18] or if it is ingested during or immediately after exercise,[66] there seems to be more reports of stomach upset. However, when a placebo group has been included and the study has been double blinded, there appears to no detrimental effect on the GI system.[43] In a recent double-blind study completed by our laboratory that examined the effects of Cr supplementation, protein supplementation, a combination of both Cr and protein supplements, or a placebo supplementation in 40- to 60-year-old men, we had essentially no reports of any GI upset (nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea) when the drinks were consumed immediately following a resistance training programme designed to facilitate muscle hypertrophy (three sets, ten exercises, 80% 1RM). Subjec...
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