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Unformatted text preview: e repeated bouts of exercise for the Cr
group was attributed to the fact that each exercise
bout began with higher concentrations of PCr compared with the placebo group. However, the inappropriate use of paired t-tests without any adjustment in the p-values or the inability to evaluate any
possible interaction terms makes direct comparisons
between the two groups impossible.
An 8-week resistance training programme, coupled with electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) applied to isokinetic force production at 70 degrees/
second, was designed by Stevenson and Dudley
in conjunction with or without Cr supplementation.
Eighteen previously resistance-trained subjects were
randomly assigned to a Cr group or placebo group.
Cr loading consisted of 20 g/day for 7 days, then
reverted to a maintenance dose of 5 g/day for 8
weeks. EMS, which elicited maximal coupled eccentric and concentric actions, was applied to the
Sports Med 2005; 35 (2) The Effects of Creatine in Sport and Exercise left quadricep fermoris twice weekly (three to five
sets) while subjects continued with their own individual lower-body workouts. Measures of muscle
CSA were obtained by way of magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI). Repeated measures ANOVA analyses revealed that the addition of electrical stimulation to the left quadricep increased CSA by 11%,
independent of Cr supplementation, probably due to
increased intracellular water. Since both groups
exhibited similar improvements in force production,
fatigue resistance and muscle hypertrophy, the authors concluded that Cr supplementation does not
augment mechanical or hypertrophic responses of
Another study that was unable to detect the efficacy of Cr supplementation for isokinetic force parameters was conducted by Gilliam et al. They
examined the acute effects of Cr supplementation on
isokinetic peak torque at 180 degrees/second in 23
active but untrained men. Subjects were randomly
assigned to either a Cr group (n = 11) or a placebo
group (n = 12). Treatment consisted of four dos...
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