Unformatted text preview: ce. There is little benefit from Cr ingestion for the prevention or
suppression of muscle damage or soreness following muscular activity.
When performance is assessed based on intensity and duration of the exercises,
there is contradictory evidence relative to both continuous and intermittent
endurance activities. However, activities that involve jumping, sprinting or
cycling generally show improved sport performance following Cr ingestion. With
these concepts in mind, the focus of this paper is to summarise the effectiveness of
Cr on specific performance outcomes rather than on proposed mechanisms of
The last brief section of this review deals with the potential adverse effects of
Cr supplementation. There appears to be no strong scientific evidence to support 108 Bemben & Lamont any adverse effects but it should be noted that there have been no studies to date
that address the issue of long-term Cr usage. 1. Background
The lure of possible enhanced sport performance
or improved exercise potential continues to make
dietary supplement products a very lucrative industry. One of the most utilised oral dietary supplements is creatine monohydrate (Cr). Cr ingestion at
supra-physiological doses has become widespread
and is no longer only being used by professional
athletes or elite collegiate athletes. Many recreational exercisers, high-school athletes, the elderly[2-5]
and children of both sexes have been ingesting Cr
with the hope of improved physical performance.
This review will provide a summary and evaluation
of the most recent scientific literature (1999 to present) as it pertains to Cr supplementation and exercise or sport performance.
1.1 What is Creatine? Cr, a nonessential dietary compound, can either
be ingested from exogenous sources such as fish or
meat or can be produced endogenously by the body,
primarily in the liver. Cr is synthesised by a two-step
process involving three amino acids (arginine, glycine and methionine). Initially, arginine and glycine
combine to form guanidinoacetate, then a methyl
group from S-adenosylmethionine is added for the
formation of C...
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