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Unformatted text preview: authors have suggested that the initial intracellular
swelling may be a preparatory phase of compensatory hypertrophy in response to resistance
training. Also, the increased water retention within
the intracellular compartments may contribute to
increased force production by increasing interstitial
In summary, it appears that most reports of adverse effects regarding Cr supplementation have
been anecdotal. When studies employ research designs that include control groups and blinding, there
appears to be no consistent finding of any detrimental effects of Cr supplementation in normal, healthy
individuals. The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement. 2005 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Sports Med 2005; 35 (2) The Effects of Creatine in Sport and Exercise 123 4. Conclusion
In general, recent studies are similar to the older
literature discussing Cr supplementation; however,
better statistical analyses utilising repeated measures designs and the examination of interaction
terms are much more common in the newer literature. Other improvements in methodologies include
double blinding, greater varieties of subjects (e.g.
female, older) and better attempts at understanding
the mechanisms responsible for improved performances.
Basically, Cr seems to provide the most beneficial effects for sport performance when the activity
involves repeated, short bouts of high-intensity exercise. It appears that athletes who perform in sports
that are most similar to this type of activity have the
greatest benefit from Cr supplementation. Sports
like football, soccer, squash and lacrosse are the
types of sport most often involving Cr usage.
Part of the documented findings associated with
Cr supplementation seem to be related to the outcome measures that are selected for any particular
study. If dynamic or isotonic peak force is assessed,
it generally appears that Cr supplementation can
provide a benefit. However, if isoki...
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