With specic minerals reality is that applying these

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Unformatted text preview: ____________ [CaSO4] Solids are leZ out of the expression (assume [ ] of a pure solid in the reacEon is equal to 1) Therefore: Ksp = [Ca 2+] [SO4 2- Brownlow, 1996 •  Can use measured concentraEons in waters (mol/l) to determine whether waters are saturated, undersaturated etc. with specific minerals •  Reality is that applying these values to natural waters can be difficult and generally viewed as approximaEons due to the chemical complexity of natural waters Carbonate system – Carbonic acid chemistry and pH At equilibrium, [CO2 ] dissolved is proporEonal to the parEal pressure of CO2 in the gas phase (PCO2 ) Can define an equilibrium constant (K): K = [CO2 ] aq / PCO2 •  CO2 (g) + H2O (l) <- > H2CO3 (aq) (carbonic acid) •  H2CO3 (aq) &lt...
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