Lab 6 _ Archaic & Modern Humans_questions.pdf - Lab 6 |...

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Unformatted text preview: Lab 6 | Archaic & Modern Humans ANT2511C Name_________________________________________________________________________ Date _____________________ Lauren 3/29 LAB EXERCISE 5 - 100 points (4 pts per question) EARLY VERSUS LATER MEMBERS OF THE GENUS H ​ OMO Refer to the pictures below to answer the following questions. 1. Which of these 4 mystery fossils is H ​ omo habilis (​ could be more than 1)​? W ​ hy? Skulls A and D are Homo habils because there cranium is higher and more rounded. 2. Which of these 4 mystery fossils is H ​ omo erectus (​ could be more than 1)? Why? Skull C is Homo erectus because it is a large skull, that has a slopping forehead, a massive brow ridge and a broad, flat nose. 3. Describe at least two traits you used to make these identifications. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in the two fossils. The first trait that I used to make these identifications was cranial proportions and head slope. Skull C has the most dramatic head slope of the four, and the skulls of A and D are much more rounded. Lab 6 | Archaic & Modern Humans ANT2511C THE EVOLUTION OF BIPEDALISM Use the A ​ ustralopithecus afarensis​ and H ​ omo erectus​ postcrania pictures below to answer the following questions. 4. Describe at least two postcranial traits that differ between these two species. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in the two fossils. The pelvis and rib cage of the Australopithecus afarensis is greatly wider than that of the Homo erectus. 5. What do these differences suggest about the two species’ degrees of bipedalism? These differences suggest that Australopithecus afarensis was not as advanced at bipedalism as the Homo erectus. Lab 6 | Archaic & Modern Humans ANT2511C HOMO ERECTUS​ VARIATION Refer to the pictures below to answer the following questions. 6. Describe at least two traits that differ between these fossils. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in each of the fossils. The back of the cranium of is pointier, and the slope is less intense in fossil A than that of fossil B. 7. Why might these differences exist? (Hint: Consider factors such as date, environment, adaptation, and sexual dimorphism.) These differences might exist because of the differences in evolution among the two. Fossil (A) is closer to that of modern human than fossil (B). 8. Do you think these differences warrant the classification of these fossils as two distinct species (​Homo ergaster and H ​ omo erectus​)? Why or why not? Yes, they are both different skulls from different points in evolution. Lab 6 | Archaic & Modern Humans ANT2511C HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS Refer to the H ​ omo heidelbergensis​ and H ​ omo erectus​ crania pictures below to answer the following questions. 9. Describe at least one trait that these two species have in common. Both skulls have similar orbital holes as well as brow ridges. 10. Describe at least one trait that differs between the two species. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in the two fossils. The teeth of the the Homo heidelbergensis fossil is less rounded than those of the Homo erectus skull. Lab 6 | Archaic & Modern Humans ANT2511C STONE TOOL TECHNOLOGY Examine the mystery stone tools pictured below to answer the following questions. 11. Which mystery tool is a handaxe? A 12. Describe the features of this tool that led you to identify it as this tool type. The teardrop shape. 13. What tool technology does it belong to? Prehistoric stone tool. 14. Name one fossil species that may have made this tool. The Homo heidelbergensis may have made this tool. 15. Which mystery tool is made from a Levallois flake? Mystery tool C. 16. Describe the features of this tool that led you to identify it as this tool type. The small size and material. 17. What tool technology does it belong to? Name one fossil species that may have made this tool. Which mystery tool is a blade? Describe the features of this tool that led you to identify it as this tool type. What tool technology does it belong to? The Levallois flake belongs to stone knapping and was used by Neandethals. The mystery tool B appears to be a blade. The features that led me to identify this tool type is its length and sharp edges. 18. Name one fossil species that may have made this tool. The homo erectus. Lab 6 | Archaic & Modern Humans ANT2511C HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS Review the mystery fossils in the pictures below and answer the following questions. 19. Which of these mystery fossils is H ​ omo neanderthalensis​? B 20. Which of these mystery fossils is​ Homo sapiens​? A 21. Describe at least two traits you used to make these identifications. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in the two fossils. One trait that helped me identify the fossils is the distinct long and low face of fossil B and the second is the square eye sockets of fossil A. Lab 6 | Archaic & Modern Humans ANT2511C HOMO FLORESIENSIS 22. Compare the mystery fossil crania pictured and complete the chart below. Place an “X” in the appropriate column to indicate which mystery fossils have the traits listed. Note: A trait may be found in more than one mystery fossil. Mystery Fossil A Large cranial capacity Low cranium Presence of chin Large mandible X X 23. Based on this information, which mystery fossil is H ​ omo floresiensis? B 24. Based on this information, which mystery fossil is H ​ omo sapiens​? A 25. Based on this information, which mystery fossil is an australopith? C Mystery Fossil C Mystery Fossil B X X X X ...
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