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1 0.036 2
0.01 Notes: Sample includes individuals who tested for HIV and have demographic data. Columns represent OLS coefficients; robust standard errors clustered by village (for 119 villages) with district fixed effects in parentheses. “Any incentive’’ is an indicator if the respondent received any nonzero monetary incentive. “HIV’’ is an indicator of being HIV
positive. Also includes age, age-squared, and gender. Distance is measured as a straight-line spherical distance from a
respondent’s home to randomly assigned VCT center from geospatial coordinates and is measured in kilometers.
*** Significantly different from zero at 99 percent confidence level.
** Significantly different from zero at 95 percent confidence level.
* Significantly different from zero at 90 percent confidence level. Respondents were personally informed of the hours of operation and location of their assigned
center (open Monday through Saturday from 8 a.m. to 7 p.m.) and centers were operational
for approximately one week. Respondents were allowed to attend any of the VCT centers but
were informed only of the location and hours of operation of their assigned center (fewer than 6
percent of respondents went to a center other than the one to which they were assigned). When
they obtained their test results, respondents also received counseling. On average, nurses spent
30 minutes counseling each respondent about safe sexual practices, including abstinence and
condom use, regardless of respondent’s HIV test results. Several studies have shown that education can have an impact on condom use and HIV prevention (see Jeff Stryker et al. 1995; K. J.
Sikkema et al. 2000). In this study, however, it is impossible to distinguish a pure information
effect (learning HIV status) from an educational effect (counseling). The counseling received
at the VCT centers would then produce upper bounds of the effects of learning HIV test results
alone. Couples were given their test results verbally and were informed of their...
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