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Unformatted text preview: ng the condoms, rather than using them. To the
extent that resale is uncorrelated with the randomly assigned incentives and distance, this would
not threaten the internal validity of results.
There were no differential effects of learning HIV-negative status on condom purchases
between those who were and were not sexually active at the baseline (Table 9). There were also
no differential effects of learning HIV status (either positive or negative) on condom purchases
among other observable respondent characteristics. For example, although men on average were
more likely to purchase condoms than women, there were no differences in the impact of learning HIV status on purchases by gender. There were also no differences by age, or ever having attended school (not shown). Learning HIV-positive or negative results did not significantly
affect having discussions with friends or spouses about condoms or AIDS. Respondents were
also asked about their attitudes about condoms. These attitudes were strong determinants of purchasing condoms; for example, those who “agreed” that condoms were acceptable to use with a
spouse were twice as likely to purchase condoms as those who “disagreed.” However, there were
no effects of receiving either a positive or negative diagnosis on attitudes about condoms among
either HIV-positive or negative individuals (not shown).
Thus, it appears that individuals learning their HIV-positive status incur private costs to protect their sexual partners by purchasing condoms. It is important to note that the effects are
greatest among those who are sexually active at the time condoms are made available to them to
be purchased. There is no statistically significant effect on the likelihood of engaging in sexual
On the other hand, the effects on condom purchases could be understated to the extent to which individuals may
have already purchased condoms in response to the HIV test. Given that only 8 percent reported purchasing condoms
on their own, this d...
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