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Unformatted text preview: hern regions respectively.4 Approximately
25 percent of all households in each village were randomly selected to participate in 1998, and
ever-married women and their husbands from these households were interviewed in 1998, 2001,
and 2004. During data collection in 2004, an additional sample of young adults (ages 15–24)
residing in the original villages was added to the sample.
Between May and August of 2004, nurses from outside each area offered respondents free
tests in their homes for HIV and three other sexually transmitted infections (STIs): gonorrhea,
chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. At the time that tests were offered, respondents were given pretest counseling about HIV prevention strategies. Samples were taken through oral swabs to test
for HIV and through urine samples (for men) or self-administered vaginal swabs (for women)
to test for other STIs (Simona Bignami–Van Assche et al. 2004 and Francis Obare et al. 2008
provide the full testing protocol.). Across the three districts, 2,894 of the 3,185 respondents who
were offered accepted an HIV test (91 percent). The main sample in this paper consists of those
who both accepted an HIV test and had basic covariate data: 2,812 individuals (Table 1, panel A).
Sample attrition and test refusals are discussed below.
The main sample is 46 percent male with an average age of 33 (Table 2, panel A). Seventy-one
percent of the respondents were married at the time of the interview and 58 percent had ever
For further sampling details see http://www.malawi.pop.upenn.edu/Level%203/Malawi/level3_malawi
sampling.htm. 1832 THE AMERIcAN EcONOMIc REVIEW DEcEMBER 2008 Mediterranean Sea Rumphi (Site 3) Mchinji (Site 1)
OCEAN Balaka (Site 2) A. Malawi B. MDCIP Study sites Figure 1. Malawi and MDICP Study Sites attended school, with an average of almost four years. Ethnicity and religion vary across the
three districts: the Chewas in Mchinji and the Tumbukas in Rumphi are primarily Christian;
the Yaos in Balaka tradition...
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