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Unformatted text preview: Among HIV-positives, men and
women were equally likely to purchase condoms at the follow-up survey. Among all respondents,
married and unmarried respondents were equally likely to purchase condoms. However, purchase of condoms did vary by reported sexual activity: condoms were purchased by 26 percent
One review of 35 studies notes, “There is no question that HIV testing can and does motivate behavioral change
in some individuals, but testing does not always lead to changes and does not have the same effect in all populations”
(Donna Higgins et al. 1991; R. J. Wolitski et al. 1997). Several studies indicate little to no behavioral differences among
those learning they are HIV-negative; there is some evidence that discordant couples may reduce risky sexual practices
after testing (The Voluntary HIV-1 Counseling and Testing Efficacy Study Group 2000; Wolitski et al. 1997; Weinhardt
1999). THORNTON: THE DEMAND fOR, AND IMpAcT Of, LEARNING HIV STATUS VOL. 98 NO. 5 1847 Percentage purchasing condoms 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Did not get results Got results A. HIV-positive individuals Percentage purchasing condoms 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Did not get results Got results B. HIV-negative individuals
Figure 5. Percentage Purchasing Condoms
Notes: Sample includes 1,524 respondents in Balaka and Rumphi who were tested for HIV
and reinterviewed in 2005 who reported having sex during 2004 (at the baseline). Figures
present the percent purchasing condoms at a follow-up interview two months after testing. of respondents who in 2004 reported having had sex in the prior year as opposed to 21 percent of
those who reported not having had sex.
C. Receiving HIV-positive and Negative Diagnoses
Panel A of Figure 5 presents the percent purchasing condoms among those who knew and did
not know their HIV status. For HIV-positive respondents, those who obtained their test results 1848 THE AMERIcAN EcONOMIc REVIEW DEcEMBER 2008 were more than twice as likely to purchase condoms as those who did not, while among HIVnegative individuals, condom purchase did not vary significantly by knowledge of HIV status
(Figure 5, panel B).
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