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Unformatted text preview: epresent marginal probit coefficients (dprobit); robust standard errors clustered by village
(for 119 villages) with district fixed effects in parentheses. All specifications also include a term for age-squared. “Any
incentive’’ is an indicator if the respondent received any nonzero monetary incentive. “HIV’’ is an indicator of being
HIV positive. “Simulated average distance” is an average distance of respondents’ households to simulated randomized
locations of HIV results centers. Distance is measured as a straight-line spherical distance from a respondent’s home to
a randomly assigned VCT center from geospatial coordinates and is measured in kilometers.
*** Significantly different from zero at 99 percent confidence level.
** Significantly different from zero at 95 percent confidence level.
* Significantly different from zero at 90 percent confidence level. less likely to attend the center than those who were HIV-negative (standard error 0.043; Table 5,
column 3). Overall, men were no more likely to attend than women. Age also had no impact on
obtaining HIV results. Opportunity costs may also be important. For example, ever attending
school reduced the probability of attending the VCT by 3.2 percentage points (standard error
0.019; regression not shown). VCT attendance varied by district and the coefficients on the district
fixed-effects are significant (Table 4). Overall, 80 percent attended the result centers in Mchinji,
71 percent attended in Balaka, and 59 percent attended in Rumphi. These differences may be
due, at least in part, to the timing of the test results availability, which coincided with planting
season in Balaka and Rumphi and thus may have resulted in lower average attendance rates in THORNTON: THE DEMAND fOR, AND IMpAcT Of, LEARNING HIV STATUS VOL. 98 NO. 5 1 12 122 13 2 14 2 152 Table 5—Covariates and Interaction Effects with Incentives and Distance
(Dependent variable: Attendance at HIV results centers)
1 0.030 2
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