See also francis obare 2006 among the main sample who

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Unformatted text preview: IV test (Table 1, panel B). See also Francis Obare (2006). Among the main sample who agreed to be tested, 18 percent reported having been tested previously for HIV, although only half of these individuals reported actually receiving their results. Those who reported having a previous test were 6 percentage points more likely to agree to be tested by the MDICP nurses (Table 1, panel B). Not all spouses of respondents were offered a test: men who divorced or whose spouse died and spouses of the newly sampled adolescents were ineligible for testing. While attrition from the panel across years suggests that the sample has disproportionately fewer mobile individuals—perhaps leading to a downward bias in the HIV prevalence rate and posing a potential threat to external validity—the sample who accepted an HIV test is relevant from a policy perspective in that it represents those who would be present during an HIV testing campaign in rural areas. The follow-up interviews were conducted among 75 percent of those in the main sample in Balaka and Rumphi. Learning HIV results and HIV status itself are both separately associated 1838 THE AMERIcAN EcONOMIc REVIEW DEcEMBER 2008 with attrition from the follow-up survey. Being HIV-positive increases the likelihood of attrition by 17 percentage points, which could be due to death or sickness (Table 1, panel C). Having obtained HIV results from the VCT center decreases the likelihood of attrition by 24 percentage points, which to a certain extent is mechanical since those who were available to attend the VCT center were also more likely to be available for the follow-up interview (if, for example, they had not temporarily migrated). Importantly, all exogenously assigned variables (receiving an incentive, the amount of the incentive, and the distance from home to the VCT center) have no significant direct effect on likelihood of attrition at the follow-up. Thus, while sample attrition and HIV test refusals may pose a potential threat to the external validity of the study, the lack of differential attrition associated with incentives or distance minimizes risk to the internal validity of...
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