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Unformatted text preview: ally practice Islam. The majority of the respondents are subsistence
farmers and 73 percent own land. The HIV prevalence rate was 6.3 percent (7.2 percent for
females, 5.1 percent for males). Prevalence rates for other sexually transmitted diseases were
even lower, with 3.2 percent men and women infected with gonorrhea, 0.3 percent men and
women with chlamydia, and 2.4 percent women with trichomoniasis (Table 2, panel B). The
prevalence of HIV in the MDICP sample is considerably lower than national prevalence rates.
Another population-based study in Malawi found an overall HIV prevalence rate of 12.5 percent
in 2004 (DHS 2004). Among the rural populations, however, the Malawi DHS found an HIV rate
of 5.2 percent in the Northern region, 7.3 percent in the Central region, and 16.7 percent in the
Southern region, which are comparable to the MDICP sample rates of 4.4 percent in the Northern
region (Rumphi), 6.4 percent in the Central region (Mchinji), and 7.9 percent in the Southern
region (Balaka). Longitudinal sample attrition from death and migration (discussed below) may
also bias the estimates downward (Philip Anglewicz 2007), as well as the disproportionate number of young adults age 15–24 included in the sample (33.4 percent of respondents), who have a
lower overall infection rate of 2.7 percent. See Section IC for further discussion.
B. Experimental Design
The first part of the experimental design involved offering monetary incentives to encourage
respondents to obtain their test results at nearby centers. After taking the HIV test samples,
nurses gave each respondent vouchers redeemable upon obtaining either HIV or STI results.
Voucher amounts were randomized by letting each respondent draw a token out of a bag indicating a monetary amount. In Mchinji and Balaka each respondent received two vouchers, one for
obtaining HIV results, and one for obtaining STI results. In Rumphi, respondents received only
one voucher redeemable by returning for either HIV or STI results. For the analysis, I examine
the impact of the total value of the incentive (the sum of the HIV and STI incenti...
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