4-26 - Revolutions of 1848 What forces drove the...

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I. Revolutions of 1848 What forces drove the revolutions of 1848? How were they similar or different from the French Revolution of 1789? Keep in mind the context created by the Industrial Revolution. Emergence of the middle class who challenge the existing political order. Urban working classes who resent their poor state of affairs. The context created by French Revolution. Nationalism. Belief that mass uprising can create political change. II. Conservative Reaction A. Vienna Settlement, 1815 Klemen von Metternich, Austria; marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars. Between 1814-1815, the leading powers of Europe who were allied against France, Austria, Russia, and Britain. All of the powers gathered in France decided to reinstate the monarchy in France (Louis XVIII). 1. Principle of legitimacy: Monarchs were restored to their throne (in France and in Spain). 2. Concert of Europe, intervention: created by the allies against France—Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria—should take on the burden of intervention and any monarch threatened by the powers of revolutionaries should intervene to protect that monarch. B. Edmund Burke—leading intellectual proponent of conservatism. Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1790 his most important work
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1. Opposed to Revolution—believed change should come gradually, through evolution 2. Importance of Tradition—argued that a state is a “partnership between those who are living, those who are dead, and those who are yet to be born. No single generation has the right to destroy this partnership, as each generation has the duty to preserve it…” 3. Legitimacy of established government 4. Incremental government C. Challenges to Conservatism 1. Nationalism: citizenship, everyone gets their own country. 2.
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4-26 - Revolutions of 1848 What forces drove the...

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