5-1 - I Review A Revolutions of 1848 the ideals of...

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I. Review A. Revolutions of 1848, the ideals of 1789 model of French Revolution, nationalism, revolt of the growing working class. Promises of 1789 have been betrayed. B. International Rivalries following the Vienna Conference. Initially it is the middle class who attempts to unify their countries (through the ballot box) in Germany and Italy. Military strength actually that maintains unity. C. Nationalism, from below and above originally, the 3 rd estate, and commoners are most strongly implicated in nationalism (the 3 rd estate is the country). Later became a tool of the state to appeal to the national pride of the masses II. Second Industrial Revolution A. Characteristics 1. Belief in progress: creates a belief in progress 2. Accelerating economic growth: urbanization, improvement in living standards, mass consumption, and growing middle class. Between 1850-1900 the real wages in Britain more than double. 3. Britain falls behind: Focus more on banking and finance. In the early 1870s, Britain produced twice as much steel as Germany. By 1910, German production is double that of Britain. B. New Technologies 1. Steel instead of iron: steel is easier to work with, its lighter, it can be bent in different ways. Led to new, faster trains, new engines, new machines, and fater, stronger transportation 2. New Power: Electricity first power station comes in 1881; electric street cars, Thomas Edison’s ridiculous amount of patents. 3. Internal Combustion: in 1900, car production was at 9000. By 1915, Henry Ford alone produce 750 thousand cars in the US per year.
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C. Consequences 1. Improved living standards: real living wages doubled 2. Mass consumption—department stores; in Paris in the 1850s, the department store was invented. Aristide Boucicaut opened the first department store in 1852: they
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