Chapter 18 - Chapter Eighteen: Mental Revolutions: Religion...

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Chapter Eighteen: Mental Revolutions: Religion And Science In The Sixteenth And Seventeenth Centuries What was Armesto trying to convey with the story of the Christian missionary in the Andes? The behavior of missionaries twenty indigenous population was distinctly different from that of lease Spaniards making the indigenous chiefs suspicions that the missionaries in which come to their village were in fact not Spaniards. Bellunti, the chief has village they were at, except to them as missionaries because the priests sat down and eat with them without hesitation. Why were the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries an unprecedented era in the revitalization of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam? Why did European elites attempt to change Christian practice and teaching during the sixteenth century? Where were Muslim and Buddhist missionaries most active in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? What role did missionaries play in this revitalization? How did the missionary strategies of these different faiths compare? Contact was initiated primarily by the Europeans. A new sense of mission came out of western Christendom to spread the word and combat evil. People employed by the church or with a sense of a strong personal relationship with God took it upon themselves to spread the religion, giving rise to new religious orders, techniques of prayer, new fashions in devotion, and increased coercion and social control. Their strategy was to convert to poor, bring strays back into the church, include children, and go abroad to convert ‘pagans”. Many rural people in Europe still practiced ‘pagan’ religions; their sacred groves and sites were destroyed. Festivals and sports, such as bear bating were banned, local saints were disowned. The shift was away from regions that supported survival in this world to salvation in the next. Practitioners of ‘magic’ were labeled ‘witches’. The Church attempted to take control of everyday life, such as marriage. The Spanish Inquisition, 1478, started by monitoring converts but also was used to control people’s sex lives. In response to lay demand for greater access to the mysteries of Christianity, increased access to sacraments, devotions, and private prayer were instituted. Martin Luther was one of the most effective new messengers. Being dissatisfied with the wealth and power of the church, he encouraged rulers to take control of the religion and return it to a simple, poorer tradition. He came to see the practices of the papacy as evil. Using the printing press and local dialectics, he reached many people in the Baltic and his way of thinking about Christianity became dominant. This new religious tactic spread into other areas as well. Other reformations followed; evangelical, protestant, and reformed. This triggered a Catholic reformation. New religious orders were founded. The Jesuits became the most important reformers both in the old world and new world for the church. The reformation resulted in the lay person becoming more engaged
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course UGC 112 taught by Professor Barry during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Chapter 18 - Chapter Eighteen: Mental Revolutions: Religion...

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