Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

d parathyroid glands the hormone from this gland

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Unformatted text preview: the production and secretion of androgens and cortisol from the adrenal cortex. (b) Humoral stimulus: High blood glucose stimulates release of insulin from the endocrine tissue of the pancreas. Low blood glucose levels stimulate release of glucagon. (c) Neural stimulus: Sympathetic nervous stimulation of the adrenal medulla causes the release of norepinephrine (noradrenaline). the body to direct its efforts towards maintaining activity throughout the stressful period. (b) Unrelieved stress leads to elevated levels of glucocorticoids (especially cortisol) which leads to prolonged immune suppression, lowered resistance to disease, and elevated levels of blood sugar. Eventually, the capacity of glands and the immune system is exhausted making the subject susceptible to illnesses such as ulcers, depression, diabetes, digestive trouble, and cardiovascular disease. Hormones of the Pituitary (page 99) 1 (a) Growth hormone has generally anabolic effects. It stimulates the proliferation of chondrocytes and deposition of bone, it stimulates muscle growth through protein synthesis and proliferation of myoblasts, and it promotes the utilization of fats. (b) Chronic or total growth hormone deficiency in infancy results in the child being small, with an immature face and chubby body build. Rate of growth of all body parts is slow so that the child's proportions remain normal. (c) In the rare case of chronic hypersecretion of growth hormone in infancy, the child exhibits rampant growth or gigantism (a condition called acromegaly). (d) Secretion of GH hormone is regulated through (1) negative feedback of IGF-1 to suppress secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus and (2) high levels of IGF-1 stimulating release of hypothalamic somatostatin which also supresses GH secretion. 2. The pituitary produces GH and TSH. TSH controls the release of hormones from the thyroid which are involved in the regulation of metabolic rate. GH stimulates the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF-1, which is both an endocrine and an autocrine/ paracrine hormone and mediates the metabolic effects attributable to GH (see 1a). 3. Release of...
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