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of blood flow. Therefore the rate of blood flow
(delivery to the tissues) must increase during
4. (a) Thyroid and adrenal glands, as well as the tissues
other than those defined in the table, show no
change in absolute rate of blood flow.
(b) This is because they are not involved in exercise
and do not require an increased blood flow.
However, they do need to maintain their usual
blood supply and cannot tolerate an absolute
decline. 5. (a) Skeletal muscles (increases 16.7X), skin
(increases 6.3X), and heart (increases 3.7X)
(b) These tissues and organs are all directly involved
in the exercise process and need a greater
rate of supply of oxygen and nutrients. Skeletal
muscles move the body, the heart must pump a
greater volume of blood at a greater rate and the
skin must help cool the body to maintain core
temperature. The Effects of Aerobic Training (page 125)
1. 3. Blood Group Antigens (page 130)
1. (a) Training: The stress generated by repeated
exercise of a certain duration and intensity.
(b) The body adjusts to the training stress by altering
its physiology in such a way that the impact of
future stress is minimized.
(a) Increase in stroke volume and cardiac output:
Increases the volume of blood transported to and
from the working tissues.
(b) Increased ventilation efficiency: Increases the
rate of gas exchange (oxygen transported into
and carbon dioxide transported out of the blood).
(c) Increased capillary density in muscle tissue:
Increased capacity for oxygen supply to working
muscle (and therefore oxidative metabolism) as
well as improved removal of metabolic waste
products. 3. With each stroke, the heart pumps a larger volume of
blood. Less energy is expended in pumping the same
volume of blood. 6. A lower resting pulse (=heart rate) means that for
most of the time, the heart is not working as hard as
in someone with a higher resting pulse. On average,
over a long period of time, the heart works less for
any given amount of effort. (a) The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is
a cluster of tightly linked genes on chromosome
6 in humans. The genes code for...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.
- Winter '13