Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

1 a obesity is regarded as a form of malnutrition

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Unformatted text preview: implistic assumptions about the distribution of muscle and bone mass. it tends to overestimate "fatness" on those with more lean body mass (e.g. athletes or very muscular people) and underestimate "fatness" on those with less lean body mass (e.g. the elderly). Deficiency Diseases (page 191) 1. Malnutrition refers to the inadequacy of the nutrition, whereas starvation refers to an absolute deficiency of calories (food in general of any sort). 2. Young children, pregnant women, and athletes have higher than normal energy requirements and some quite specific vitamin and mineral requirements. It is more difficult for these particular groups to satisfy their energy and nutrient requirements through normal eating. Extra information: Children are generally very active and are growing rapidly, so they have a high requirement for both energy and minerals such as iron and calcium. Athletes have high energy demands because of their increased physical activity and higher rates of tissue repair. Their need for some minerals, such as iron, is also higher than for non-active adults. Pregnant women have slightly higher energy needs than non-pregnant women, as well as specific nutrient requirements (e.g. for iron and folate) associated with nourishing a developing foetus. Children, with their smaller capacity, must eat more frequently. Athletes must eat more, particularly of energy and nutrient dense foods. Pregnant women should take care to avoid alcohol, and make food choices that supply their increased nutrient demands with only a moderate increase in calorie intake. 3. (a) Iron is required for the production of haemoglobin and a lack of iron in the diet results in lower than normal levels of haemoglobin in red blood cells. Less oxygen will be able to be transported around the body and this results in breathlessness and fatigue (the typical symptoms of anemia). (b) Women of child-baring age, who are not pregnant, menstruate regularly and, for some, blood losses can be heavy. This is often coupled with a lower overall food intake and a lower intake of red...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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