Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

2 34 kidney dialysis page 206 1 the dialysing solution

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Unformatted text preview: he general transport process involved in dialysis is diffusion; the movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. 5. The dialysing solution runs in the opposite direction to that of the blood (similar to countercurrent heat exchangers) because in this way almost all of the urea can be removed from the blood in the shortest possible time. Further explanation: The blood at the beginning of the dialysis column (high urea) encounters dialysate that already contains some urea, but there is still a concentration gradient from blood to dialysate. By the time the blood reaches the end of the dialysis column most of the urea has been removed, but it encounters fresh dialysing solution (no urea) and there is still a concentration gradient. Having blood and dialysate running in opposite direction maintains the concentration gradient for a longer time. If the two fluids ran in the same direction the concentrations would quickly equilibrate, and urea would cease to pass into the dialysate. Female Reproductive System (page 212) 1. (a) Uterus (d) Cervix (b) Fallopian tube (oviduct) (e) Vagina (c) Ovary (f) Clitoris 2. (a) Houses developing embryo, establishes placenta. (b) The usual place of fertilization and also conducts the egg to the uterus. (c) Produces ova (eggs) and female reproductive hormones (estrogen and progesterone). (d) Entry to uterus. Its mucus protects the uterus from invasion by microorganisms. It is a powerful muscle that prevents the loss of the fetus in pregnancy. 3. (a) A = Ovary. (b) Ovulation. (c) Oogenesis (gametogenesis is also correct). 4. (a) Oocyte released: Metaphase of meiosis II. (b) Meiosis II completed: After fertilization. The urea passes into the dialysate because there is always less urea present in dialysate than in blood. Therefore there is a concentration gradient for urea between the blood and the dialysate. 4. Anatomy and Physiology 3. donor will not be avaiable when required. Life-time dialysis is expensive, time consuming an...
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