Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

2 994 3 in maintaining its filtration rates the kidney

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Unformatted text preview: retention of ions other than Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited 33 kidneys from external damage, and anchors them firmly in place. The extracellular fluid compartments (the fluid within and outside vessels) make up the remainder of the body's water and are important for bathing the cells, maintaining the integrity of hollow structures (like blood and lymph vessels) and providing the environment for the necessary exchanges between the extracellular and intracellular compartments. The Physiology of the Kidney (page 201) 1. 2. A B C D E F G H Bowman's capsule Distal convoluted tubule Collecting duct Proximal convoluted tubule Glomerulus Large blood proteins Efferent arteriole Loop of Henle 4 (Active transport of salt from ascending limb of the Loop of Henle.) (Filtration through the membrane of the glomerulus.) (Reabsorption of glucose and ions by active transport.) (Reabsorption of water by osmosis from the descending limb of the Loop of Henle.) + + (Active secretion of H and K .) (Concentration of the urine by osmotic withdrawal of water from the filtrate.) + (Reabsorption of Na and Cl by active transport and water by osmosis.) 1 2 3 5 7 6 3. Control of Urine Output (page 203) 1. (a) Diabetes insipidus is characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine (accompanied by a great thirst). Lack of ADH causes excessive urine production (ADH reduces urine output). (b) Diabetes insipidus is treated by administering ADH. 2. Decreases or increases in blood volume are detected by hypothalamic osmoreceptors and the secretion of ADH increases or decreases accordingly. This results in an adjustment of urine output until homeostasis is restored. The adjustments made in response to the ADH release act back on the hypothalamus to counter further change. Note that, by a more complex mechanism, low blood volumes also stimulate the release of aldosterone, which induces Na+ reabsorption in the kidney and (by osmosis) more absorption of water and thus restoration of bloo...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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