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Unformatted text preview: sternized) societies. – Water Budget in Humans (page 198)
1. Metabolism involves the oxidation of glucose to
produce ATP. A by-product of this process is water
(6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O) 2. (a)
(d) 3. Excessive water intake, without associated intake
of electrolytes, has a diluting effect where there is
an increase in total body water relative to the total
amount of exchangeable sodium. This causes an
osmotic shift of water from the plasma into the cells,
particularly the brain cells. Typical symptoms include
nausea, vomiting, headache and malaise. Note: As
the hyponatremia worsens, confusion, diminished
reflexes, convulsions, stupor or coma may occur.
Nausea is, itself, a stimulus for the release of ADH,
which promotes the retention of water, leading to a
positive feedback loop and the potential for a vicious
cycle of hyponatremia and its symptoms. Carbon dioxide: Origin: All metabolizing cells.
Organ of excretion: Lungs.
Water: Origin: All metabolizing cells.
Organs of excretion: Lungs, kidneys, gut, skin.
Bile pigments: Origin: Breakdown of hemoglobin in
liver. Organ of excretion: Gut. The breakdown product
passes out in the feces.
Urea: Origin: Produced in the liver from ammonia
(resulting after breakdown of amino and nucleic
acids). Organs of excretion: Kidneys, skin.
Ions: Origin: General result of cellular metabolism.
Organs of excretion: Kidneys, skin, gut.
Hormones: Origin: Endocrine organs, sometimes
ingested (synthetic hormones and antiinflammatories). Organs of excretion: Kidneys, skin.
Poisons: Origin: Ingested or inhaled from external
sources. Organs of excretion: Kidneys.
Drugs: Origin: Ingested or inhaled from external
sources. Organs of excretion: Kidneys. Intestinal infection resulting in diarrhea.
Inadequate access to fluids.
Excessive sweating. Urine Analysis (page 199)
1. Urinalysis is quick and simple to perform and there
are diagnostic parameters for particular metabolites.
This makes diagnosis and treatment potentially very
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- Winter '13