Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

2 anatomy and physiology 1 dietary advice centres

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Unformatted text preview: sternized) societies. – Water Budget in Humans (page 198) 1. Metabolism involves the oxidation of glucose to produce ATP. A by-product of this process is water (6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O) 2. (a) (b) (c) (d) 3. Excessive water intake, without associated intake of electrolytes, has a diluting effect where there is an increase in total body water relative to the total amount of exchangeable sodium. This causes an osmotic shift of water from the plasma into the cells, particularly the brain cells. Typical symptoms include nausea, vomiting, headache and malaise. Note: As the hyponatremia worsens, confusion, diminished reflexes, convulsions, stupor or coma may occur. Nausea is, itself, a stimulus for the release of ADH, which promotes the retention of water, leading to a positive feedback loop and the potential for a vicious cycle of hyponatremia and its symptoms. Carbon dioxide: Origin: All metabolizing cells. Organ of excretion: Lungs. Water: Origin: All metabolizing cells. Organs of excretion: Lungs, kidneys, gut, skin. Bile pigments: Origin: Breakdown of hemoglobin in liver. Organ of excretion: Gut. The breakdown product passes out in the feces. Urea: Origin: Produced in the liver from ammonia (resulting after breakdown of amino and nucleic acids). Organs of excretion: Kidneys, skin. Ions: Origin: General result of cellular metabolism. Organs of excretion: Kidneys, skin, gut. Hormones: Origin: Endocrine organs, sometimes ingested (synthetic hormones and antiinflammatories). Organs of excretion: Kidneys, skin. Poisons: Origin: Ingested or inhaled from external sources. Organs of excretion: Kidneys. Drugs: Origin: Ingested or inhaled from external sources. Organs of excretion: Kidneys. Intestinal infection resulting in diarrhea. Inadequate access to fluids. Excessive vomiting. Excessive sweating. Urine Analysis (page 199) 1. Urinalysis is quick and simple to perform and there are diagnostic parameters for particular metabolites. This makes diagnosis and treatment potentially very qu...
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