Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

2 decreases or increases in blood volume are detected

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Unformatted text preview: d volume. Acid-Base Balance (page 205) 1. Blood is continuously circulating and carrying with it the products of metabolic activity (which are generally acidic and could potentially alter pH considerably if the blood were not buffered). The efficiency (and continuation) of metabolic processes depends on blood pH staying within the narrow range required by the enzymes catalyzing metabolic processes. 2. Metabolic acidosis is caused by increased production of H+ by the body or the inability of the body to form bicarbonate (HCO3–) in the kidney. Causes can be varied by include diarrhea (loss of HCO3–), renal failure, starvation, and poisoning. 3. (a) Chemical buffers in the blood tie up excess H+ or bases temporarily. The bicarbonate ion and its acid (carbonic acid) are in a dynamic equilibrium to mop up excess H+ and OH–. The system is supported by the charged groups on blood proteins, which act as H+ acceptors or donors. (b) If a base is added to the system, the OH– is neutralized to a weak base (HCO3–) 4. (a) The respiratory response to excess H+ is an increase in the rate and depth of breathing. (b) The excess H+ comes from the dissociation of carbonic acid (H2CO3), which arises as a result of carbon dioxide combining with water. (c) Respiratory acidosis is the result of decreased ventilation of the pulmonary alveoli. This can arise as a result of airway obstruction (e.g. asthma), depression of the respiratory center (e.g. as a result of trauma), certain diseases (e.g. muscular dystrophy), and obesity. 5. It is only through the renal system that excess acids and bases can be permanently eliminated from the body; the main ways this is achieved is through excretion of hydrogen ions and reabsorption of hydroxide ions (since most metabolic wastes are acidic). Alcohol inhibits ADH release causing greater urine output, resulting in dehydration and thirst. 3. 4. Active transport of sodium and chloride in the nephron is used to establish and maintain the salt gradient through the kidney that is essential to...
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