Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

2 a passive immunity describes the immunity that

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Unformatted text preview: ith maternal antibodies because they have not yet had exposure to the common microbes in their environment and must be born with operational defense mechanisms. (b) Breast milk provides a continued antibody supply that is updated according to the local environment. Extra explanation: It takes time for the infant’s immune system to become fully functional. After birth, the supply of antibodies received during pregnancy declines. Breast milk boosts antibody levels while the infant’s immune system matures. (a) In the primary response, the antibodies build to a small peak, then gradually decline to very low levels. The secondary response, in contrast, involves a much more rapid response in antibody production, and to a much higher level. The secondary response is much stronger and also much longer lasting. (b) The immune system has been prepared to respond to the antigen by the first exposure to it (this primary response takes a considerable time). When the cells of the immune system receive a second exposure to the same antigen they are able to quickly respond with the rapid production of antibodies. a cell for varying periods of time). In addition, the virus cannot be targeted in this state without also killing the host cells. Extra note: There is now an HIV proviral test, which circumvents some of these issues. Organ and Tissue Transplants (page 147) 1. Higher success rate of organ transplants due to: (a) More effective and safer drugs to suppress immune rejection of the foreign organ. (b) Improved techniques to match tissue type between donor and recipient. (c) Better techniques for organ preservation and storage (during transfer from donor). 2. (a) Organ and tissue rejection occurs because the immune system recognizes the transplanted material as foreign and sets out to destroy it. (b) Immunosuppressant drugs suppress the immune system response to foreign tissue. Tissue typing is important because the better the match of the histocompatibility antigens between the donor and recipient the less chance there is of immediate rejection of the transplant...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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