Unformatted text preview: ith maternal
antibodies because they have not yet had
exposure to the common microbes in their
environment and must be born with operational
(b) Breast milk provides a continued antibody
supply that is updated according to the local
environment. Extra explanation: It takes time
for the infant’s immune system to become fully
functional. After birth, the supply of antibodies
received during pregnancy declines. Breast milk
boosts antibody levels while the infant’s immune
(a) In the primary response, the antibodies build
to a small peak, then gradually decline to very
low levels. The secondary response, in contrast,
involves a much more rapid response in antibody
production, and to a much higher level. The
secondary response is much stronger and also
much longer lasting.
(b) The immune system has been prepared to
respond to the antigen by the first exposure to it
(this primary response takes a considerable time).
When the cells of the immune system receive a
second exposure to the same antigen they are
able to quickly respond with the rapid production
of antibodies. a cell for varying periods of time). In addition, the virus
cannot be targeted in this state without also killing the
host cells. Extra note: There is now an HIV proviral
test, which circumvents some of these issues. Organ and Tissue Transplants (page 147) 1. Higher success rate of organ transplants due to:
(a) More effective and safer drugs to suppress
immune rejection of the foreign organ.
(b) Improved techniques to match tissue type
between donor and recipient.
(c) Better techniques for organ preservation and
storage (during transfer from donor). 2. (a) Organ and tissue rejection occurs because the
immune system recognizes the transplanted
material as foreign and sets out to destroy it.
(b) Immunosuppressant drugs suppress the
immune system response to foreign tissue.
Tissue typing is important because the better
the match of the histocompatibility antigens
between the donor and recipient the less chance
there is of immediate rejection of the transplant...
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- Winter '13