Unformatted text preview: h heart disease rates are low
in a country with low total fat intake (Japan),
they are even lower in a country (Crete) where
the total fat intake is very high, but the fats are
mostly mono-unsaturates (from plant oils). Where
saturated fat intakes are high, heart disease rates
are also high. AS Anal sphincter at the
end of the anus Animal products provide a readily available, easily
assimilated source of many nutrients, including
B group vitamins and some fat soluble vitamins.
Without animal products in the diet, vegans must
plan carefully to ensure their nutritional needs are
met though other sources. This usually means careful
combining of food types to meet protein and vitamin/
mineral requirements. (a) Tongue.
(b) Villi lining the small intestine (ileum).
(c) Villi lining lumen of the small intestine
(d) Lining (mucosa) of the stomach.
(f) Liver. 4. The bolus (rounded mass of chewed food) moves
through the gut by peristalsis. Circular muscles
contract behind the bolus, pushing it down. Ahead
of the bolus, the longitudinal muscles contract
shortening the passage and making it wider to receive
the food. 5. It allows the gut to become regionally specialized
so that different parts of the gut perform different
functions, e.g. storage, physical digestion, chemical
digestion, elimination, water reabsorption. This
improves the overall efficiency of the digestive
process. 6. 3. 3. Diet (degree of bulk and nutritional quality). Note:
Bulky, low energy diets required larger, longer guts
that can accommodate large volumes of food. 7. (a) Mastication provides physical break down of the
food by chewing. The result is greater surface
area for the action of enzymes.
(b) Absorption provides the means by which
the products of chemical digestion enter the
bloodstream. Absorption of water and salts in
the large intestine is important in fluid and ion
balance and prevents excess water loss from the
gut. The Mouth and Pharynx (page 178)
1. (a) To break down the food by chewi...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.
- Winter '13