Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

2 a the new food pyramid distinguishes between healthy

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Unformatted text preview: h heart disease rates are low in a country with low total fat intake (Japan), they are even lower in a country (Crete) where the total fat intake is very high, but the fats are mostly mono-unsaturates (from plant oils). Where saturated fat intakes are high, heart disease rates are also high. AS Anal sphincter at the end of the anus Animal products provide a readily available, easily assimilated source of many nutrients, including B group vitamins and some fat soluble vitamins. Without animal products in the diet, vegans must plan carefully to ensure their nutritional needs are met though other sources. This usually means careful combining of food types to meet protein and vitamin/ mineral requirements. (a) Tongue. (b) Villi lining the small intestine (ileum). (c) Villi lining lumen of the small intestine (duodenum). (d) Lining (mucosa) of the stomach. (e) Teeth. (f) Liver. 4. The bolus (rounded mass of chewed food) moves through the gut by peristalsis. Circular muscles contract behind the bolus, pushing it down. Ahead of the bolus, the longitudinal muscles contract shortening the passage and making it wider to receive the food. 5. It allows the gut to become regionally specialized so that different parts of the gut perform different functions, e.g. storage, physical digestion, chemical digestion, elimination, water reabsorption. This improves the overall efficiency of the digestive process. 6. 3. 3. Diet (degree of bulk and nutritional quality). Note: Bulky, low energy diets required larger, longer guts that can accommodate large volumes of food. 7. (a) Mastication provides physical break down of the food by chewing. The result is greater surface area for the action of enzymes. (b) Absorption provides the means by which the products of chemical digestion enter the bloodstream. Absorption of water and salts in the large intestine is important in fluid and ion balance and prevents excess water loss from the gut. The Mouth and Pharynx (page 178) 1. (a) To break down the food by chewi...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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