Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

3 bronchodilators dilate the bronchioles alleviating

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Unformatted text preview: Thymus 4. (a) Memory cells: Retain an antigen memory. They can rapidly differentiate into antibody-producing plasma cells if they encounter the same antigen again. (b) Plasma cells: Secrete antibodies against antigens (very rapid rate of antibody production). (c) Helper T cells: Activate cytotoxic T cells and other helper T cells. Also needed for B cell activation. (d) Suppressor T cells: Regulate the immune system response by turning it off when antigens disappear. (e) Delayed hypersensitivity T cells: Cause inflammation in allergic responses and are responsible for rejection of transplanted tissue. (f) Cytotoxic T cells: Destroy target cells on contact (by binding and lysing cells). 5. Immunological memory: The result of the differentiation of B cells after the first exposure to an antigen. Those B cells that differentiate into long lived memory cells are present to react quickly and vigorously in the event of a second infection. Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited Acquired Immunity (page 143) 1. (a) Active immunity describes the immunity that develops after the body has been exposed to a microbe or its toxins and an immune response has been invoked. (b) Naturally acquired active immunity arises as a result of exposure to an antigen such as a pathogen, e.g. natural immunity to chickenpox. Artificially acquired active immunity arises as a result of vaccination, e.g. any childhood disease for which vaccinations are given: diphtheria, measles, mumps, polio etc. 2. (a) Passive immunity describes the immunity that develops after antibodies are transferred from one person to another. In this case, the recipient does not make the antibodies themselves. (b) Naturally acquired passive immunity arises as a result of antibodies passing from the mother to the fetus/infant via the placenta/breast milk. Artificially acquired passive immunity arises as Anatomy and Physiology The Lymphatic System (page 137) 24 a result of injection with immune serums e.g. in antivenoms. 3. Anatomy and Physiology 3. (a) Newborns need to be supplied w...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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