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Unformatted text preview: CCK).
Effect: Stimulates contraction of the gall bladder
and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi so that bile
passes into the small intestine. 6. Stimulus: The presence of food in the gut (particularly
the duodenum). The Large Intestine (page 183)
1. Function of large intestine: Reabsorption of water
from the slurry of digested food material. 2. Less dependent on a large surface area (required in
the small intestine for efficient nutrient absorption).
Mucus secretion from short, tubular glands is more
important (for protection of the epithelium from
friction). 3. (a) Lymph nodule
(b) Submucosa (c) Epithelium
(d) Circular muscle Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited 31
The Liver’s Homeostatic Role (page 187)
1. (a) Supply 1: Branches of the hepatic artery.
Purpose: Supply of oxygen and nutrients to the
(b) Supply 2: Hepatic portal vein. Purpose: Brings
nutrient-rich blood to the liver for processing by
the liver cells. 2. (a) Bile canaliculi: Carry the bile (secreted by the
hepatocytes) to the bile ductules where it then
flows into the bile duct.
(b) Phagocytic Kupffer cells: Engulf microbes and
break down spent red blood cells.
(c) Central vein: Carries blood (mix of hepatic portal
and arterial blood) that has passed through the
liver lobule to the hepatic vein (which exits the
(d) Sinusoids: Blood spaces that carry the mix of
hepatic portal and arterial blood through the
lobules, for processing, and supply of oxygen and
nutrients. 3. 1. (a) Obesity is regarded as a form of malnutrition
because more food is consumed than is required
to stay healthy. The food consumed is often
highly processed and not nutritionally balanced,
containing high levels of fat, sugar, and salt.
(b) The two basic energy factors which determine
how a persons weight will change are the energy
consumed and the energy expended (exercise). 2. (a) Overweight: 85.6-102.6 kg
(b) Normal weight: 68.5-85.6 kg
(c) Obese: over 102.6 kg 3. The calculation of BMI makes s...
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- Winter '13