Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

3 the gallbladder stores the bile and releases it

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Unformatted text preview: CCK). Effect: Stimulates contraction of the gall bladder and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi so that bile passes into the small intestine. 6. Stimulus: The presence of food in the gut (particularly the duodenum). The Large Intestine (page 183) 1. Function of large intestine: Reabsorption of water from the slurry of digested food material. 2. Less dependent on a large surface area (required in the small intestine for efficient nutrient absorption). Mucus secretion from short, tubular glands is more important (for protection of the epithelium from friction). 3. (a) Lymph nodule (b) Submucosa (c) Epithelium (d) Circular muscle Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited 31 The Liver’s Homeostatic Role (page 187) 1. (a) Supply 1: Branches of the hepatic artery. Purpose: Supply of oxygen and nutrients to the liver tissue. (b) Supply 2: Hepatic portal vein. Purpose: Brings nutrient-rich blood to the liver for processing by the liver cells. 2. (a) Bile canaliculi: Carry the bile (secreted by the hepatocytes) to the bile ductules where it then flows into the bile duct. (b) Phagocytic Kupffer cells: Engulf microbes and break down spent red blood cells. (c) Central vein: Carries blood (mix of hepatic portal and arterial blood) that has passed through the liver lobule to the hepatic vein (which exits the liver). (d) Sinusoids: Blood spaces that carry the mix of hepatic portal and arterial blood through the lobules, for processing, and supply of oxygen and nutrients. 3. 1. (a) Obesity is regarded as a form of malnutrition because more food is consumed than is required to stay healthy. The food consumed is often highly processed and not nutritionally balanced, containing high levels of fat, sugar, and salt. (b) The two basic energy factors which determine how a persons weight will change are the energy consumed and the energy expended (exercise). 2. (a) Overweight: 85.6-102.6 kg (b) Normal weight: 68.5-85.6 kg (c) Obese: over 102.6 kg 3. The calculation of BMI makes s...
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