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(b) To lubricate the food and mix it with saliva to
being the process of chemical digestion. 2. The epiglottis prevents food from going into the
trachea and instead directs it to the esophagus. This
can be inferred from its position and by the fact that
i is normally pointed upward during breathing but is
more horizontal during swallowing. 3. Tonsils provide immune protection against pharyngeal
and upper respiratory tract infections. Stomach and Small Intestine (page 181)
The Human Digestive Tract (page 179)
1. Structures as follows:
A Mouth and teeth
B Salivary glands
F Pancreas Region responsible for
(a) I - small intestine
(b) J - rectum
(c) H - colon
(d) E - stomach G
L Gall bladder
Colon (or large intestine)
Anus each function as follows:
(e) F - pancreas (or B)
(f) D - liver
(g) B - salivary gland Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited 1. The gut movements move food through the gut by
peristalsis and mix the food so it is accessible to
digestive enzymes. 2. The stomach is a sac-like organ, lined with folds,
which enable considerable expansion of the walls.
This allows the stomach to accommodate large
volumes of food and serve as a storage organ
between meals. The stomach lining is pitted with
gastric glands, which secrete acid, mucus, and a
precursor of the protein-digesting enzyme, pepsin.
The acid activates the precursor and the pepsin
begins the process of protein digestion. The mucus
protects the stomach lining from the acid and
lubricates the food as it is mixed by the muscular
stomach walls. Mixing also helps to expose the food in Anatomy and Physiology 1. Cardiac sphincter
the stomach to the action of the pepsin.
3. (a) and (b): any two of the following in any order:
Purpose: Digestion of proteins to polypeptides.
Enzyme: pancreatic amylase
Purpose: Digestion of starch to maltose. Absorption and Transport (page 184)
1. (a) Micelles: Aid the passage of lipids across the...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.
- Winter '13