Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

Apoptosis results in cell shrinkage and contraction

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Unformatted text preview: cted cells. – Controlled removal of cancerous cells. Nutritional composition changes because the baby’s nutritional requirements (e.g. for protein and fat) change as its grows. 9. Apoptosis: Programmed Cell Death (page 228) Breast Cancer (page 229) 1. Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited Note that risk increases with age regardless of other risk factors. Any three of the following: • Women whose menstrual periods began when young and/or in those whose menopause was late. Risk is associated with a prolonged period with elevated estrogen levels. • Women who have no children or who have their first child in late 20s or 30s. Risk association as Anatomy and Physiology 2. 38 above. Women who do not breast feed are at greater risk. Again, risk is associated with having no respite from high estrogen levels. Inherited tendency. Risk is associated with mutations to the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes or the p53 tumor suppressor gene. High fat diet increases risk of obesity and breast cancer. The link between diet and risk is complex, but increased body fat can increase a woman’s estrogen levels and therefore her risk of developing breast cancer. • • • 2. Breast self examination is unreliable for detecting lumps less than 15 mm in diameter. 3. Lumpectomy (simple removal of the tumor) usually followed by radiotherapy. 4. Japanese women living in Japan consuming a lowfat diet have a lower incidence of breast cancer than Japanese women living in the US eating a high-fat diet. Sexual Development (page 230) Anatomy and Physiology 1. Primary sexual characteristics are the distinguishing characteristics that are either male or female (i.e. penis and testes, or vagina, uterus, and ovaries). Secondary sexual characteristics are male or female characteristics that develop after puberty under the influence of reproductive hormones, e.g. facial and pubic hair, breast development, deposition of fat and muscle. 2. Testosterone. 3. Development of heavier musculature, increased body and facial hair, deepening of voice. 4. (a) Fat deposits serve as an energy reserve for the maintenance of pregnancy. (b) The menstrual cycle may stop and with it ovulation. This results in (usually temporary) infertility. 5. (a) Corpus luteum, placenta (in pregnancy). (b) Preparation of the uterus to receive a fertilized egg, maintenance of pregnancy (especially through maintenance of the placenta), inhibition of gonadotropins so that no further follicles develop. Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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