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Unformatted text preview: cted cells.
– Controlled removal of cancerous cells. Nutritional composition changes because the baby’s
nutritional requirements (e.g. for protein and fat)
change as its grows. 9. Apoptosis: Programmed Cell Death (page 228) Breast Cancer (page 229)
1. Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited Note that risk increases with age regardless of other
risk factors. Any three of the following:
• Women whose menstrual periods began when young and/or in those whose menopause was
late. Risk is associated with a prolonged period
with elevated estrogen levels.
• Women who have no children or who have their first child in late 20s or 30s. Risk association as Anatomy and Physiology 2. 38
Women who do not breast feed are at greater risk. Again, risk is associated with having no
respite from high estrogen levels.
Inherited tendency. Risk is associated with mutations to the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes or
the p53 tumor suppressor gene.
High fat diet increases risk of obesity and breast cancer. The link between diet and risk is
complex, but increased body fat can increase a
woman’s estrogen levels and therefore her risk of
developing breast cancer. • • • 2. Breast self examination is unreliable for detecting
lumps less than 15 mm in diameter. 3. Lumpectomy (simple removal of the tumor) usually
followed by radiotherapy. 4. Japanese women living in Japan consuming a lowfat diet have a lower incidence of breast cancer than
Japanese women living in the US eating a high-fat
diet. Sexual Development (page 230)
Anatomy and Physiology 1. Primary sexual characteristics are the distinguishing
characteristics that are either male or female (i.e.
penis and testes, or vagina, uterus, and ovaries).
Secondary sexual characteristics are male or female
characteristics that develop after puberty under the
influence of reproductive hormones, e.g. facial and
pubic hair, breast development, deposition of fat and
muscle. 2. Testosterone. 3. Development of heavier musculature, increased body
and facial hair, deepening of voice. 4. (a) Fat deposits serve as an energy reserve for the
maintenance of pregnancy.
(b) The menstrual cycle may stop and with it
ovulation. This results in (usually temporary)
infertility. 5. (a) Corpus luteum, placenta (in pregnancy).
(b) Preparation of the uterus to receive a fertilized
egg, maintenance of pregnancy (especially
through maintenance of the placenta), inhibition
of gonadotropins so that no further follicles
develop. Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.
- Winter '13