Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key


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Unformatted text preview: eostasis. Respiratory system: Interface for gas exchange with the internal environment - obtaining oxygen and expelling CO2. Lymphatic system: circulates tissue fluid, internal defense against pathogens. 10. Cardiovascular system: delivers oxygen and nutrients to all tissues and organs and removes CO2 and other waste products of metabolism. 11. Endocrine system: produces hormones that activate and regulate homeostatic functions, growth, and development. Primary components: Hypothalmus (nervous and endocrine function secretes oxytocin and ADH as well as releasing hormones, which regulate the hormones of the anterior pituitary. Pituitary: secretes hormones to regulate the activities of other endocrine glands. Parathyroid glands: secrete PTH for regulation of blood calcium. Pancreatic islets: secrete hormones to regulate carbohydrate metabolism. Testes (male) secrete testosterone for maintaining maleness and for sperm production. Ovaries secrete estrogen and progesterone to maintain femaleness, control the menstrual cycle, and prepare for and maintain pregnancy. Pineal secretes melatonin to regulate the sleep-wake cycle. Adrenal glands secrete corticosteroids for regulating aspects of sodium regulation and responses to stress. For Q. 2.-4., more detail is given than may be required. 2. Mechanisms by which responses to stimuli are brought about and coordinated: (a) Hormonal response to stimuli: Endocrine glands respond to a stimulus (e.g. a nerve impulse or another hormone or metabolite) by producing hormones which bring about an appropriate physiological response. For example, nervous stimulation of the adrenal glands when the body receives a stressful stimulus causes the release of epinephrine. This hormone causes mobilization of glucose in muscle and liver cells, increases heart rate and directs blood away from nonessential organs. These responses help the body react to the stress situation. (b) Nervous response to stimuli: Direct stimulation of nerves from a sensory receptor causes a reaction to the stimulus. This may be a response requiring interpretation of the message by the brain or...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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