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Unformatted text preview: s) may also be involved in
transmitting contractile movements across the muscle.
The all-or-none response refers to the way in which (a) Shoulder girdle connects the upper limbs and the
axial skeleton on each side of the body. Made up
of clavicle and scapula.
(b) The sternoclavicular joints (between sternum and
clavicle) on each side. 4. Aging and the Skeleton (page 55) Joints (page 53)
(e) 2. Joints allow movement of the skeleton, which is
otherwise rigid. 3. (a) To allow passage of the infant's head through the
pelvis during childbirth.
(b) To allow for rapid early growth of the brain.
Fibrous joints are connected through fibrous 4. Pivot - B
Hinge - D
Ball and socket - E
Saddle - A
Gliding - C Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited 4. Anatomy and Physiology 2. (a)
an individual muscle fiber contracts maximally (if the
stimulus is strong enough) or not at all (if it is not).
5. 3. (a) Shaded region A: Oxygen deficit: the amount
of oxygen needed for aerobic supply but not
supplied by breathing i.e. an oxygen deficit builds
(b) Shaded region B: Oxygen debt: the extra oxygen
required (taken in) despite the drop in energy
demand. The debt is used to replace oxygen
reserves, restore CP, and break down lactic acid.
Note: Both components (deficit and debt) are
often used synonymously (as oxygen debt)
although they are not quite the same. The deficit
is the oxygen shortfall incurred during exercise;
the debt is the amount of oxygen required to
restore oxygen and energy stores to resting
levels. Their values are not necessarily the same. 4. Oxygen uptake does not immediately return to resting
levels because of the extra oxygen required to restore
oxygen and energy levels (the oxygen debt). 5. Oxygen supply is increased by increased rate and
depth of breathing (increasing gas exchange rate) and
increased blood flow (increased gas transport). 6. Lactic acid levels in the blood rise for a time after
exercise because the lactic acid is transported in the
blood from the muscles (where it has...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.
- Winter '13