Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

H zone disappears as the overlap becomes maximal no

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Unformatted text preview: s) may also be involved in transmitting contractile movements across the muscle. The all-or-none response refers to the way in which (a) Shoulder girdle connects the upper limbs and the axial skeleton on each side of the body. Made up of clavicle and scapula. (b) The sternoclavicular joints (between sternum and clavicle) on each side. 4. Aging and the Skeleton (page 55) Joints (page 53) 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 2. Joints allow movement of the skeleton, which is otherwise rigid. 3. (a) To allow passage of the infant's head through the pelvis during childbirth. (b) To allow for rapid early growth of the brain. Fibrous joints are connected through fibrous 4. Pivot - B Hinge - D Ball and socket - E Saddle - A Gliding - C Biozone International 2009 Photocopying Prohibited 4. Anatomy and Physiology 2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) (s) (t) 10 an individual muscle fiber contracts maximally (if the stimulus is strong enough) or not at all (if it is not). 5. 3. (a) Shaded region A: Oxygen deficit: the amount of oxygen needed for aerobic supply but not supplied by breathing i.e. an oxygen deficit builds up. (b) Shaded region B: Oxygen debt: the extra oxygen required (taken in) despite the drop in energy demand. The debt is used to replace oxygen reserves, restore CP, and break down lactic acid. Note: Both components (deficit and debt) are often used synonymously (as oxygen debt) although they are not quite the same. The deficit is the oxygen shortfall incurred during exercise; the debt is the amount of oxygen required to restore oxygen and energy stores to resting levels. Their values are not necessarily the same. 4. Oxygen uptake does not immediately return to resting levels because of the extra oxygen required to restore oxygen and energy levels (the oxygen debt). 5. Oxygen supply is increased by increased rate and depth of breathing (increasing gas exchange rate) and increased blood flow (increased gas transport). 6. Lactic acid levels in the blood rise for a time after exercise because the lactic acid is transported in the blood from the muscles (where it has...
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This document was uploaded on 01/28/2014.

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