Anatomy and Physiology Answer Key

If a new product is ineffectual there is a risk that

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Unformatted text preview: ds. (b) Deamination of excess amino acids and production of urea in the urea cycle. (c) Synthesis of plasma proteins. For carbohydrate metabolism (a)-(c) in any order: – Glycogenesis (formation of glycogen from glucose). – Glycogenolysis (breakdown of glycogen to form glucose (in the presence of glucagon)). – Conversion of glycogen to fats for storage. – Conversion of fats back to glycogen to enable mobilization of glucose. – Gluconeogenesis: formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources (glycerol plus amino acids). Malnutrition and Obesity (page 190) 32 population (particularly poorer sectors who cannot afford to buy supplements). 5. 6. A zinc deficiency results in impaired muscle function because zinc is required for both enzyme activity and gene expression. Zinc is also important in sexual development, e.g. in the production of sperm, and a deficiency of zinc results in a delay in puberty. Alcohol damages the cells lining the small intestine and inhibits fat absorption so, even if dietary intake is adequate, many fat soluble vitamins will not be absorbed or utilized properly. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (page 193) Type 1 diabetes results from an absolute deficiency (non-production) of insulin and must be treated with insulin injection. Type 2 diabetes is a result of the body's cells becoming insensitive to insulin and ceasing to respond to normal insulin levels (usually arising as a complication of obesity). Consequently, type 2 diabetes is treated first with dietary management, exercise, and anti-diabetic drugs, with insulin therapy used only as a last resort. 2. Anatomy and Physiology 1. Dietary advice centres around a reduction in caloric intake to reduce body weight, achieved through a reduction in high fat food (to reduce blood lipid levels) and an emphasis on increasing the proportion of slow energy-release (low GI) foods in order to stabilize blood sugar for longer periods. 3. An increase in type 2 diabetes is associated with the risk factors of obesity and an increasing tendency towards a sedentary lifestyle. Both these are features of developed (we...
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