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(b) Deamination of excess amino acids and
production of urea in the urea cycle.
(c) Synthesis of plasma proteins.
For carbohydrate metabolism (a)-(c) in any
– Glycogenesis (formation of glycogen from
– Glycogenolysis (breakdown of glycogen to form
glucose (in the presence of glucagon)).
– Conversion of glycogen to fats for storage.
– Conversion of fats back to glycogen to enable
mobilization of glucose.
– Gluconeogenesis: formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources (glycerol plus amino acids). Malnutrition and Obesity (page 190) 32
population (particularly poorer sectors who cannot
afford to buy supplements).
5. 6. A zinc deficiency results in impaired muscle function
because zinc is required for both enzyme activity
and gene expression. Zinc is also important in sexual
development, e.g. in the production of sperm, and a
deficiency of zinc results in a delay in puberty.
Alcohol damages the cells lining the small intestine
and inhibits fat absorption so, even if dietary intake
is adequate, many fat soluble vitamins will not be
absorbed or utilized properly. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (page 193) Type 1 diabetes results from an absolute deficiency
(non-production) of insulin and must be treated
with insulin injection. Type 2 diabetes is a result of
the body's cells becoming insensitive to insulin and
ceasing to respond to normal insulin levels (usually
arising as a complication of obesity). Consequently,
type 2 diabetes is treated first with dietary
management, exercise, and anti-diabetic drugs, with
insulin therapy used only as a last resort. 2. Anatomy and Physiology 1. Dietary advice centres around a reduction in caloric
intake to reduce body weight, achieved through a
reduction in high fat food (to reduce blood lipid levels)
and an emphasis on increasing the proportion of slow
energy-release (low GI) foods in order to stabilize
blood sugar for longer periods. 3. An increase in type 2 diabetes is associated with the
risk factors of obesity and an increasing tendency
towards a sedentary lifestyle. Both these are features
of developed (we...
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- Winter '13